Work is an important event, a fact that is inevitable in the life of an individual whatever form, it is done; it is an activities and source of satisfaction ones needs. Employees try to find satisfaction in what they do and as result the manager should be able to understand the problems faced by his workers and find a way of satisfying their needs and aspiration. Ehiorobo, 2004.
The general assumption is that an adequately motivated worker will in turn give in his or her best towards the attainment of a general consensus. Consequently when is motivated the question of poor performance and inefficiently will be forgotten issue is an organization. Manager who are successful in motivating employees are made often providing an environment in which appropriate or adequate goals called incentive are made available for the needed satisfaction of the employee. Ehiorobo 2004
This chapter shall attempt to look at how the subject of motivation has evolved over the years and some known literature that have been written and have relevance to the subject. An attempt will also be made to find out any knowledge gap that exists in current literature on the subject and how this research can bridge some of this gap.
2.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The theoretical framework is a fundamental part of every study since it contributes
a crucial role in orienting to the whole processes of the research. It does not only help the researcher to see thoroughly the variables but also provides her/him with a framework for data analysis (Mehta 2013). In the beginning of this chapter, the definition of motivation, its concepts and methods will be introduced. The importance of employees’ motivation on organizational effectiveness is also discussed shortly. Next, the motivation theories of Abraham Maslow, Frederik
Herzberg will be explained in detail. It will bring insight on employees’ motivation and understanding of different motivational theories, which act as a base for this study. This chapter closes with a summary of all theories and states out the connections of the chosen theories.
Two incompatible conceptions of human nature appear in philosophical literature. One holds that man is essentially rational, a choosing willing being who knows the sources of his conduct or who is aware of the reasons for his conduct hence is responsible for that conduct Ehiorobo 2004
The other viewpoint sometimes holds that man, by nature, is irrational and that his impulses and desires must be held in check by the force of society’s sanctions. Another way of saying this is that man is pushed and pulled by the forces of his constitution and the stresses of his environment and that he is largely unaware of the sources of his actions and may therefore not have personal responsibility for his actions Ehiorobo, 2004.
Adequate motivational factors have little or no place in a rationalistic account of conduct, because man’s reason is the overriding factor in the determination of what he does. His will is free to choose whatever course of action his reason dictates. If his choices are unwise, unethical, or immoral, he is responsible for them because his reason and his will have freely selected them. On the other hand, motivational factors would explain the behavior of Man in particular circumstances if it were accepted that he is irrational. Since the study is aimed at examining the impact of motivation on employee’s productivity in an organization, it will be necessary to critically examine the study by seeking to define what is meant by the concepts impact of motivation’ employee productivity and ‘organisation’ it will also be necessary to review some studies in these areas. Ehiorobo 2004.
2.1.1 The definition of motivation
The word “motivation” originates from a Latin word “movere”. “Movere” means to move. Thus, it creates a reflection of something going up, keeping us working and helping us to achieve our goals (Korth., 2007). Jeffrey S. Nevid, a professor of psychology, defined “motivation” as: “The term motivation refers to factors that activate, direct, and sustain foal directed behavior … Motives are the ‘whys’ of behavior – the needs or wants that drive behavior and explain what we do. We don’t actually observe a motive; rather, we infer that one exists based on the behavior we observe.” (Nevid., 2013).
The definition of “motivation” can be broad, and there are many ways to define the term itself, depending on e.g. different perspectives. The purest definition it expresses is something that motivates (Merriam-Webster Dictionary 1873). It is an act or a process that gives a person a reason to do something in a particular way, or an explanation for the repeated behaviors, needs, and desires (Ellliot., 2001). In short, it describes why a person does something.
In an organizational aspect, motivation has been defined as “the sum of the processes that influence the arousal, direction, and maintenance of behaviors relevant to work settings”. Employee motivation at work is considered as an essential drive as it generates effort and action towards work-related activities, for example, employee’s willingness to spend the energy to achieve a common goal or reward. When an employee is motivated, he or she shows enthusiasm and eagerness towards the work and a strong determination to implement and accomplish the work tasks (Moran., 2013).
2.1.3 THE CONCEPT OF MOTIVATION
“Motivation is psychological forces that determine the direction of a person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of effort and a person’s level of persistence” (Jones & George 2008). The concept of motivation could be broad, however, according to Jones & George (2008), there are three major components of motivation which are direction, intensity, and persistency. Direction is a goal that forces an individual to perform an act to achieve it. A goal is chosen consciously or unconsciously by an individual. There are factors that influence a person in selecting the goal, including both internal and external factors, and the final goal is the best one chosen among potential alternatives. The intensity is the level of determination or effort put by an individual in the process of achieving the goal; how hard an individual has tried, and how much energy, time, money, or any other mental or physical things have been used during the process to achieve the goal. Persistence is the ability of an individual to maintain the motivation through times even though obstacles may exist (Robbins and Judge 2013). It is not an exaggeration to say motivation is the core to being successful. A motivated person is likely to willingly put more effort into doing a task and a good result is within expectations. When goals are achieved, it drives a feeling of being satisfied and enjoyment for the employees and creates a positive working attitude in the workplace.
Along with perception, personality, attitudes, and learning, motivation is a very important part of understanding behavior, Luthan (1998) asserts that motivation should not be thought of as the only explanation of behavior, since it interacts with and acts in conjunction with other mediating processes and with the environment. Luthan (1998) stress that, like the other cognitive process, motivation cannot be seen. All that can be seen in behavior, and this should be equated with causes of behavior. While recognizing the central role of motivation, Evans (1998) states that many recent theories of organizational behavior find it important for the field to reemphasize behavior.
Definitions of motivation abound, one thing these definitions have in common is the inclusion of words such as ”desire” want”, wishes”, aim”,goals”, needs” and incentives. Luthan 1998 defines motivation as ” a process that starts with a physiological deficiency or need that activates behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal incentive’ ‘Therefore, the key to understanding the process of motivated lies in the meaning of, and relationship among, needs, drives and incentives. Relatives to this, Minner, Ebrahimi and Watchel, 1995 states that in a system sense, motivated consists of these three interacting and interdependent elements, i.e needs, drives and incentives. Managers, management and researchers have long believe that organizations goals are attainable without the enduring commitment of members of the organization. Motivation is a human psychological characteristic that contributes to a person’s degree of commitment Stoke(1999). It includes the factors that cause, channel and sustain human behavior in a particular committed direction. Stoke in Adeyemo 1999 goes on to say that there are basic assumptions of motivation practices by manager which must be understood.
Firstly, that motivation is commonly assumed to be a good thing. On cannot feel very good about one self if one is not motivated.
Secondly, motivated is one of several factors that go into a person’s performance. Factors such as ability, resources, and conditions under which one performs are also important.
Thirdly, managers and researchers alike assume that motivation is in short supply and in need of periodic replenishment. Fourth, motivation is a tool with which managers can use in organization. If managers know what drives the people working for them, they can tailor job assignments and rewards to what makes these people ”tick” Motivational can also be conceived of as whatever it takes to encourage workers to perform by fulfilling or appealing to their needs. Stoke in Adeyemo 1999, to Olajide 2000, ”it is goal-directed, and therefore cannot be outside the goals of any organization whether public, private or nonprofit”
Also motivation is a progression of moving and supporting goal directed behavior (Jibowo, 2007 pg. 12). It is an internal strength that drives individual to pull off personal organizational goals (Nwachuwku 2004 pg.12). Motivation is a set of courses concerned with a kid of strength that boost performance and directs towards accomplishing some definite targets Employee motivation among financial, economic and human resources, the latest are more essential and have the capability to endow a company with competitive edge as compared to others (www.saycorporativeo.com/saycoUK/NIJjournal/Vol5No1/Article.pdf). Employee performance fundamentally depend on many factors like performance appraisals, employee motivation, employee satisfaction, compensation, training and development, job security, organizational structure and others, but the area of study is focused only on employee motivation as this factor highly influence the performance of employees. Employee motivation is one of the policies of managers to increase effectual job management amongst employees in organizations (www.umsl.edu/.-joshi/msis 480/chapt 14.htm Managing and Controlling Information Syste. A motivational employee is responsive of the definite goals and objectives he/she must achieve, therefore he/she directs its effort in that direction. (Yazdani et al.,2011 pg. 20), reported that motivation formulates an organization more successful because provoked employees are constantly looking for improved practices to do a work. Getting employees to do their bestwork even in strenuous circumstances is one of the employees most stable and greasy challenges and this can be made possible through motivating them.
Organizational Effectiveness: Composition of people which formulate independent business identity for some specific purpose is commonly known as organization and getting desired outcome within defined resource is treated as effectiveness. Organizational effectiveness is the notion of how effectual an organization is in accomplishing the results the organization aims to generate. It plays an important role in accelerating organizational development It is the net satisfaction of all constituents in the process of gathering and transforming inputs into output in an efficient manner (Mani. V., 2010 Pg.15). Organizational effectiveness is defined as the extent to which an organization, by the use of certain resources, fulfils its objectives without depleting its resources and without placing undue strain on its members and/ or society.
2.1.4 Factors Affecting Employees’ Motivation
Employees want to earn reasonable salary and payment and desire their workers to feel that is what they are getting (Adam. J.S .,1999). Money is the fundamental inducement; no other incentive or motivational technique comes even close to it with respect to its influential value. It has the supremacy to magnetize, maintain and motivate individuals towards higher performance. Frederick Taylor and his scientific management associate described money as the most fundamental factor in motivating the industrial workers to attain greater productivity (Mani. V., 2010 Pg.15). Research has suggested that reward now cause satisfaction of the employee which directly influences performance of the employee (Adam. J.S .,1999). Rewards are management tool that hopefully contributes to firms’ performance by influencing individual or group behavior. All businesses use pay, promotion, bonuses or other types of rewards to motivate and encourage high level performances of employees. To use salaries as a motivator effectively, managers must consider salary structures which should include importance organization attach to each job, payment according to performance, personal or special allowances, fringe benefits, pensions and so on (Akerele. A.,2001 pg.5). Leadership is all about getting things done the right way, to do that you need people to follow you, you need to have them trust you. And if you want them to trust you and do things for you and the organization, they need to be motivated (Assam .A.P.,2002). Theories imply that leader and followers raise one another to higher levels of morality and motivation (Banjoko S.S.,2010).
Motivation is purely and simply a leadership behavior. It stems from wanting to do what is right for people as well as for the organization. Leadership and motivation are active processes (Daniel and Caryl, 1995 pg.27). Empowerment provides benefits to organizations and makes sense of belonging and pride in the workforce. In fact, it builds a win-win connection among organizations and employees; which is considered an ideal environment in numerous organizations and their employees. Empowering can flourish virtual human capacities. Empowered employees focus their job and work life with additional importance and this leads to constant progress in coordination and work procedures. Employees execute their finest novelties and thought with the sense of belonging, enthusiasm and delight, in empowered organizations. Adding up, they work with a sense of responsibility and prefer benefits of the organization to theirs (Egwurudi, P.C.,2008). Trust is defined as the perception of one about others, decision to act based on speech, behavior and their decision. If an organization wants to improve and be successful, trust plays a significant role so it should always be preserved to ensure an organizations existence and to enhance employees’ motivation. It can make intrapersonal and interpersonal effects and influence on the relations inside and out the organization. Additionally, the concept also mentions in the classification of motivation types which can be divided as Intrinsic (internal) motivation and Extrinsic (external) motivation as show in figure 1 (Richard ; Edward 2000).
Figure 1: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation (Ryan ; Deci 2000)
Intrinsic motivation comes from one’s self-desire to seek out new things and to challenge oneself. It is the eagerness to learn, to gain knowledge and to explore self-values and capabilities (Ryan 2000). When a person has intrinsic motivation, it means he or she does the job with interest and enjoyment. Such persons have the tendency to be engaged in their jobs, do their work with passion and willingness, striving for best results and self-reward as well as continuously improving their skills and abilities (Wigfield 2004).
On the contrary, extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of activities to achieve the desired outcomes. Extrinsic motivation can arise from both internal and external factors. However,most of the time it comes from the impact of external factors rather than internal ones (e.g. individual itself). Therefore, the main question to answer is from where to get the extrinsic motivation and how a person can sustain his/her motivation (Ryan 2000). There are factors that create extrinsic motivation, for example, competitions, appraisals, external rewards, or punishment (Dewani 2013).
2.2 STRATEGIES OF MOTIVATING WORKERS
There are many ways to motivate employees in today’s working environment.
Companies globally have been using different strategies and approach in order to improve employees’ motivation. However, it seems that the best motivator for employees is something that is indeed important in their lives. Furthermore, different people might have different values and approaches and, therefore, being able to understand employees’ needs and using appropriate motivating methods can help increase the level of motivation (Gleeson 2016).
Bernard in Stoner et al 1995 accords due recognition to the needs of workers saying that,”the ultimate test of organizational success is its ability to create values sufficient to compensate for the burdens imposed upon resources contributed. ”Bernard looks at workers in an organized endeavor, putting in time and efforts for personal, economic, and non-economic satisfaction. The question here is what strategies can be used to motivate workers?The following are strategies
Salary, Wages and Conditions of Services: To use salaries as a motivator effectively, personnel manages must consider four major components of a salary structures. These are the job rate, which relates to the importance the organization attaches to each job, payment, which encourages workers or groups by rewarding them according to their performance; personal or special allowances, associated with factors such as scarcity of particular skills or certain categories of information professionals or librarians, or with long service, and fringe benefits such as holidays with pay, pensions, and so on. It is also important to ensure that the prevailing pay in other library or information establishing is taken into consideration in determining the pay structure of their organization Bernard in Stoner et al. 1995.
Money: Akintoye 2000 asserts that money remains the most significant motivational strategy. As far back as 1911, Fredrick Taylor and his Scientific management associate describe money as the most important factor in motivating the industrial workers to achieve greater productivity, Taylor advocated the establishment of incentive wage systems as a means of stimulating workers to higher performance, commitment, and eventually satisfaction, Money possesses significant motivating power in as much as it symbolizes intangible goals like security, power, prestige, and a feeling of accomplishment and success. Katz, in Sinclair, et al (2005) demonstrates the motivational power of money through the process of job choice. He explains that money has the power to attract, retain, and motivate individuals toward higher performance. For instance, if a librarian or information professional has another job offer which has identical job characteristics with his current job, but greater financial reward, that worker would in all probability be motivated to accept the new job offer. Banjoko (1996) states that many managers use money to reward or punish workers. This is done through the process o rewarding employees for higher productivity by instilling fear of loss of job (e.g, Premature, retirement due to poor performance). The desire to be performed and earn enhanced pay may also motivate employees. Banjoko 1996.
According to Jan Ketil Arnulf’s article “Money as a Motivator” on Fudan University School of Management (2014), money is deemed to be the best motivator to any individual. Looking back to the historical time, it is money that caused huge differences between employees working in inhuman conditions in the early industrial revolution and the ones working in slave-conditions in the countryside. For those who take part in the “paid employee” system, the money means more than just itself; it also means freedom and prosperity. That is why many people trying to move to industrial regions with the hope to improving their lives and working conditions. With that prospect of salary, today many young people are still striving from poorer to better living conditions, from low to high education since they think it is the only way to ensure a prosperous future (Arnulf 2014). But is money the best and only motivator? Or are there any of motivators that have surpassed the money motivator? Considering from another perspective, we, as human beings, work for money, but also for many other things too, such as achievement, recognition, advancement, growth, responsibility, and the work itself (Herzberg 1987)
Staff Training: No matter how automated an organization may be, high productivity depends on the level of motivation and the effectiveness of the workforce. Staff training is an indispensable strategy for motivating workers.The organization must have good training program. This will give the information professional oppourtunities for self-improvement and development to meet the challenges and requirements of new techniques of performing a task Bernard in Stoner et al. (1995).
Information Availability and Communication: One way managers can stimulate motivation is to give relevant information on the consequences of their actions on others Olajide (2000). To this researcher it seems that there is no known organization in which people do not usually feel there should be improvement in the way departments communicate, cooperate and collaborate with one another, information availability brings to bear a powerful peer pressure, where two or more people running together will run faster than when running alone or running without awareness of the pace of the other runners. By sharing information, subordinates compete with one another. Studies on work motivation seem to confirm that it improves worker’s performance and satisfaction. For example, Brown and Sherperd (1997) examine the characteristics of the work of teacher librarians in four major categories: Knowledge base, technical skills, values and beliefs. He reports that they will succeed in meeting this challenge only if they are motivated by deeply-held values and beliefs regarding the development of a shared vision.Vinokur, Jayarantne and Chess (1994) examine agency-influrnced work and employment conditions, and asses their impact on social workers’job satisfaction.
Some motivational issues were salary, fringe benefits, job security, physical surroundings and safety. Certain environmental and motivational factors are predictors of job satisfaction. While Co;vin(1998) shows that financial incentives will get people to do more of what they are doing, Silverthrone (1996) investigates motivated and managerial styles in the private and public sector. The results indicate that there is a little difference between the motivational needs of public and private sector employees, managers and non-managers.
Employee empowerment has been promoted as a way to increase motivation (Kaplan & Norton 1992, 1996). Empowerment gives employees a feeling of control, efficiency and impact. It creates a sense of freedom in making choices and the ways how to work, and work involvement; the feeling of responsibility and the
ability to carry out work in a satisfactory manner; and the feeling of achievement when the task is accomplished within expectations and with desired outcomes. Many studies have shown that employees with high empowerment motivation have higher level of work motivation, which correspondingly results in better organizational productivity and performance (Thomas & Velthouse 1999; Koberg, Boss, Senjem & Goodman 1999) Achievement motivation is referred to as the need for achievement (Elliot & McGregor 1999). It is the need for success and indicates the wish of attaining excellence. Achievement may vary depending on different people. For example, it is the need for enjoyment and fulfillment to have a work-life balance, to feel engaged and satisfied with the work but still able to enjoy meaningful life to the fullest. Or it is simply about the impact their work has had on e.g. society and, environment. Feeling that you are making a difference, changing the world in a positive way, and making it a better place to live is really a powerful motivator (Jex &Britt 2008)
Advancement as a motivator indicates the opportunities of being promoted to higher position, having higher salary and more benefits in the company. Not all employees share the same advancement motivation, therefore understanding each employee’s needs and assisting them to reach the satisfied drivers is also a way to motivating employees (Lipman 2014)
Growth motivation is quite similar to advancement motivation since it is one of the motivators that helps retain the employees. However, the definition is broader and it is not only just about career promotion or better salary and benefits. Good employees are enthusiastic, eager, determined, and above all, ambitious. They are always looking for better opportunities to grow, to acquire more knowledge, to learn new skills, to widen their network, and to challenge themselves with differ positions. Providing and stimulating employees’ growth motivation is essential method of increasing the level of motivation (Lipman 2014)
The work itself is also a contributor to employee motivation. There is a fact that an employee might absolutely love his or her job, is satisfied with the pay, and has good relationships with his/her colleagues, but still finds the work itself completely boring and uninspiring. A happy employee may stay, but if you really want to motivate the employees, create interesting work and let them engage with it. This means forming strong work cultures, encouraging creative thinking and innovation, and especially, avoiding unhealthy, unequal and impotent working environments (Landrum 2015)
Finally, whatever the job is and no matter what your position is, it is very important to an employee that his/her efforts are recognized. If an employee has been spending a lot of time working on a task, or is even just willing to help out the other co-workers, give them applause and show them your gratitude. It can be understood that it is not merely about giving praise. If the efforts of an employee are recognized, he/she will feel achievement and fulfillment and continue to excel in the work. However, it is crucial to consider that the recognition as a motivator may differ among employees as one might increase the work productivity after being recognized while one is the opposite. By working closely with employees, you may know how they react to recognition, thus being able to off a fitting way of appreciation (Healthfield 2017)
2.3 MARS MODEL OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR
MARS model is a model is a model that explains individual behavior as a result of internal and external factors or influences acting together. The name of the model is an acronym of the four major factors that have an effect on employee performance motivation, abilities, role perception and situational factors. Individual values, personality, perceptions, attitudes and stress form basis on which the factors interact. These factors are highly interrelated in organizations. Unless all of the elements of the MARS model are satisfied, employee behavior and performance will be affected and negatively impacted. For example, enthusiastic and employee with high motivation level who is skilled in running the work (ability), and understands the job duties (roles and perception)well, will not be able perform their job well if there is a lack of the adequate and sufficient resources9situational factors).
2.4 IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION
All organizations, regardless of size, market, and technology, want to be successful and maintain a constant progress even in a current highly competitive business environment. In order to achieve those goals and objectives, strategies must be developed and well-implemented with the effective utilization of all capable resources. A few companies believe that their employees are an important asset that can lead them to overcome difficulties, exceed their limits and reach prosperity. In contrast, companies that put their personnel in the centre of the business, maintaining a positive and strong relationship with its employees, persuading them towards task fulfilment are proved to result in higher effectivity and productivity (Adi, 2000, Anka, 1988, Rothberg 2005).
However, today, companies are also facing challenges in employee retention. Acknowledging the important role of employees and the huge influence they bring towards organizational effectiveness, companies are trying to retain employees by creating motivation and a healthier workplace. This is very important because if the personnel are not focused well, it associates with a decline in business productivity and effectiveness. Unless and until the employees are motivated and satisfied, an organization cannot foster to success (Manzoor 2011)
Many researches have shown that motivated employees perform work better than demotivated ones. Motivated employees are more innovative as they are always looking for better ways to complete a task. They are self-direct and goal-oriented. They can produce high-quality work with more or maximized efficiency and productivity (Boundless 2017) which also leads to maximization of profits (Matthew, Grawhich & Barber 2009). Employee motivation has a strong influence on the effectiveness of an organization (Paul 2017). Organizational effectiveness is a broad term but this study follows the concept as “locating targets and attaining them proficiently in spirited and energetic surroundings” (Constant 2001). “An effective organization will make sure that there is a spirit of cooperation and sense of commitment and satisfaction within the sphere of its influence” (Abbah 2014). There are no fixed parameters to compute the effectiveness of an organization since it varies from company to company and from case to case. However, it can be used to measure anything within an organization, from leadership, communication, accountability, metric, human performance, to the delivery systems (Anderson & Adams 2015). In this research, the focus is mainly on human productivity, specifically on the aspect of employees’ motivation. The aim is to prove the connection and made concrete the idea of employee motivation resulting in organizational effectiveness
The achievement of individuals and organizational goals are independent process linked by employee work motivation. Individuals motivates themselves to satisfy their personal goals, therefore they invest and direct their efforts for the acheievements of organizational objectives to meet with their personal goal also. It means that organizational objectives to meet with their personal goal also. It means that organizational goals are directly proportion to the personal goals of individuals. Kalim, Syed and Muhammad (2010) Robert(2005), reported that the manager job is to ensure the work done through employees is possible, if the employees are self motivated towards work rather directed. The manager involvement is not so much important in the motivation of employees. The employees should motivate themselves to work hard.
The major issue in all services organizations is the motivationof employees whether they are skilled or unkilled or professionals. Employee motivation is also a major issue in Abuja Electricity Distribution Company Abuja. it is a today’s challenge for the management in this competitive world to motivate employees to offer efficient and good services that customers expect so far.
The employees’ motivation, their enthusiastic and energetic behavior towards task fulfillment play key role in successes of an organization to benefit Cheng (1995). According to Petcharack (2002), one of the functions of human resources manager is related to ensure employee’s workplace motivation. The human resource manager’s function should be to assist the general manager in keeping the employees satisfied with their jobs. Another goal in organization is the goal for the services manager is to develop motivated employees and encourage their morale regarding their respective works. The employee work morale, such as supervisors, peers, organization and work environment can be defined in a sense that the employee has the feeling and be conscious about all aspects of the jobs. The performance is poor if the employee ia not satisfied and happy. Kalim, Syed and Muhammed (2010) workplace dissatisfaction often leads organization and its employees’ poor performance.
2.5 LEVELS OF EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION
According to research conducted by Mosley, Megginson and Pietri in (2001) there are three levels of employees’ motivations.
1. The direction of an employees’ behavior
2. The level of effort
3. The level of persistence.
Daschler and Ninemeier (1989) conducted research and investigated what employees may seek from the work environment. Their discussion reviews some of employee-related concerns that can be found in the venue of strategies to employees’ motivation.
• Employees are individual that come from different backgrounds, they have different education with different experiences and their different family classes are all the factors in which their needs be located.
• The primary interest of employees is to satisfy their personal need, ambitions, desires and goals.
• An employee wants to satisfy its basic needs, linked to survival and security concerns and a desire to belong, to generate positive feelins from within and from others, and to be self-fulfilled
• Most employees want
1. Fair and consistent company policies in matters affecting them
2. Management they can respect and trust
3. Adequate working relationships with managers and co-workers
4. Acceptable salaries and working environment
5. Appropriate job security assurance
6. Favourable job status
The other important factors that can fulfill and motivate employees are challenging work, work that yields a sense of personal accomplishment, expression of appreciation of good performance, increased responsibility and the chance to grow in the job, the feeling of importance and making a contribution to the organization, and participation in job-related matters that affect the employees.
The research conducted by Kashifurrehman et al., (2007), in Pakistan measuring the effect of ‘Human Resources Strategies” like pay, promotion and training on job satisfaction. Their study was focused on workforce of service based companies in Pakistan. They concluded from their research that pay, promotion and training had positive and significant impact on job satisfaction. They argued and suggested that employees in Pakistan give more importance to pay and promotion than training, Kalim, Syed and Muhammad (2010).
The significant differences were found among male and female employees’ job satisfaction level in Pakistan based service organization. According to their reports services based industry in going under tremendous changes for the last few years in Pakistan. Due to these changes not only their transactions are increasing but their range of services is also expanding. As a result different sectors of service industry such as banks, educational institutes and telecommunication firms are experiencing swift turnover Rehman et al., (2007).
Human beings are motivated by requirements that fulfill their needs. These depend on many factors and vary by the individual requirments and necessary situation. Besides basic needs that range from food, clothing, medicine and shelters, there is workplace that needs to be extended for acceptance and self-esteem. The researcher has indicated that each individual experience these factors in different level. Therefore, managers should figure out the basic theories of motivation, how to better Cheng, (1995)
2.6 MOTIVATION AND JOB PRODUCTIVITY
According to Butkus and Green (1999), motivation is derived from the word ”Motivate”, means to move, push or persuade to act from satisfying a need. Baron (1983) defined motivation in his own right. He says that ”Motivation is a set of process concerned with a kid of force that energies behavior and directs it towards achieving some specific goals. Many writers have expressed motivation is goal directed behavior. This objective nature of motivation is also suggested by Kreitner and Kinicki (2001, p. 162) put forward that motivation represents” those psychological processes that cause the stimulation, persistence of voluntary action that are goal directed.
In another terms, a motivated person have the awareness of specific goals must be achieved ways; therefore he/she directs its effort to achieve such goals Net et al.,(2001). It means that motivated person is best fit for the goals that he/she wants to achieve as he/she is fully aware of its assumptions. Therefore if the roles of managers are assumed to successfully guide employees towards the organizational agaenda of achiving its objectives, then it is very important for them to educate and understand those phychological processes and undertakings that root cause the stimulation, direction of destination, determination and persistence of voluntary actions Roberts (2005), Mol (1992) differentiate between the term ‘movement’ and motivator’ .Movement carries out the task for compensation, remuneration in humans mind to act, while the term motivation is stapled with total involvement of a person in its tasks to carry out with excitements and happiness. In simple words, movement make person compel to carry out tasks, while motivation is self realized jubilant and pleasing act of carrying out specific tasks. The researcher emphasizes on motivation which is basis for the success because the person ”involbed in it is very happy and voluntarily excited not for compensation. Motivation is reason for individuals’ accomplishement to carry out the project La Motta (1995). There are many aspects of motivation in an organization, a person motivated by those aspects may not necessarily motivate another person gives reasons, because there are many different factors that affaect motivation level of different employees. Kalim, Syed and Muhammed (2010).
On reaching the understanding and believing that people (employees) are naturally motivated, an organization simply provide the environment for their motivation to be enhanced and improved Baron (1983). It means that an organization is a better environment and working atmosphere provider, it only needs to believe that the people have the motivational behavior.
Lawler (2003) noted that different theories questioning why people prefer certain careers, why they seek particular rewards and why they feel satisfied or dissatisfied with their work and rewards. These are some of the reasoning questions that create so many assumptions and hypotheses to be researched it is important to review the literature on motivation clarify the issue.
2.7 MOTIVATION AND PRODUCTIVITY
Motivation is the combination of a person’s desire and energy directed at achieving a goal. It is the cause of action. Influencing people’s motivation means getting the want to do what you know must be done. Military Leadership (1993).
Motivation is the combination of a person’s desire and energy directed at achieving a goal. Motivation can be intrinsic, such as satisfaction and feelings of achievement; or extrinsic, such as rewards, punishment, and goal obtainment. Not all people are motivated by the same thing and over time their motivations might change.
Productivity can be referred to as the quantity of work that is attained in a unit of time by means of the factors of production. These factors include technology, capital, entrepreneurship, land and labour. It is the link between inputs and outputs and increases when an increase in output occurs with a lesser than comparative increase in input. It also occurs when equal amount of output is generated using fewer inputs (ILO, 2005). Glen (2014) stated that the manufacturing sector is an ever changing beast and every year, the industry is faced with fresh challenges. The author stated that virtually all media houses constantly report the closure of industrial units, labour disputes between employers and their employees or reductions in the labour force due to recession and other economic dynamics. As a result, the image of manufacturing industries have been marred by low wages, high labour turnover, inadequate working conditions, poor performance and productivity (Githinji, 2014).
Productivity is a total measure of the efficiency or capacity to transform inputs that is raw materials into finished products or services. More precisely, productivity is a measure that indicates how well essential resources are used to accomplish specified objectives in terms of quantity and quality within a given time frame. It is suitable when measuring the actual output produced compared to the input of resources, taking time into consideration. Hence, productivity ratios indicate the extent at which organizational resources are effectively and efficiently used to produce desired outputs. Efficiency takes into account the time and resources required to execute a given task. Therefore, it can be concluded that effectiveness and efficiency are significant predictors of productivity. Bhatti (2007) and Qureshi (2007) were of the perspective that productivity can be seen as a measure of performance that encompasses both efficiency and effectiveness. It can also be referred to as the ratio of output or production capacity of the workers in an organization. It is the correlation that exists between the quantity of inputs and outputs from a clearly defined process. The performance of a business which determines its continued existence and development is largely dependent on the degree of productivity of its workers. Yesufu (2000) stated that the prosperity of a nation as well as social and economic welfare of its citizens is determined by the level of effectiveness and efficiency of its various sub components.
Employee Productivity: Jennifer and George (2006) Argued that the performance of workers contribute directly to an organization’s level of effectiveness, efficiency and even towards the achievement of administrative goals. It also stated that a corporation’s failure to certify that its workers are motivated has a negative influence on its organizational effectiveness and efficiency thereby affecting employee’s productivity levels concerning expected goals and objectives. According to Antomioni (1999) a worker’s level of productivity is reliant on the extent at which workers believe that certain motivational desires will be fulfilled stating that workers become demoralized as such less productive once they perceive that their desires can’t be met or gratified.
Mathis and John (2003) suggested that productivity refers to a measure of the quantity and quality of work done, bearing in mind the cost of capital used. The greater the level of organizational productivity, the greater the competitive edge. This is because the costs associated with the production of goods and services are lesser. Better productivity ratios does not automatically mean that more output is manufactured; it could also mean that less workers or less financial resources and time were utilized in producing the similar output. McNamara (2003) stated that productivity may be denoted in form of quality, quantity, time and cost. He also stated that evaluating productivity has to with measuring the length of time it takes an average employee to produce a specified level of output. Although measuring productivity may seem difficult, it is however very significant since it directly affects organizational profitability.
Brady (2000) claimed that none of the resources utilized for production in the workplace are so thoroughly examined as the human capital. Most of the activities carried out in HR Systems are intended to influence worker or organizational productivity. Compensation, evaluation systems, training and development, recruitment, job characteristics are HR responsibilities directly aimed at productivity. Bernardin (2007) clearly stated that the importance of motivational factors cannot be underestimated by an organization in increasing the productivity levels of a workforce especially when trying to gain competitive advantage. He also stated that productivity may be hard to measure, but it can be evaluated in terms of effectiveness and efficiency of workers.
2.8 MOTIVATIONAL ISSUES
Often an employee knows how to perform correctly, the process is good, and all resources are available, but for on reason or another, chooses not to do so, which normally means it is a motivational issue. While many jobs have problems that are inherent to the position, it is the problems that are inherent to the person that normally cause us to loose focus our main task of getting results. These motivational problems could arrive from family, pressures, personality conflicts, a lack of understanding on how the behavior affects other people or process.
When something breaks the psychological contract between the employee and the organization, the leader must find out what the exact problems is by looking beyond the symptoms, finding a solution, focusing on the problem, and then implementing a plan of action. One of the worst situations that a leader can get is to get the facts wrong. Military Leadership (1993) start by collecting and documenting what the employee is not doing or should be doing, such as tasks, special projects, reports, etc. Try to observe the employee perfroming the task.
Also, do not make it a witch hunt, but rather observe and record what the employee is not doing to standards. Check past performance appraisals, previous managers, or other leaders the employee might have worked with. Try to find out if it a pattern or something new. Once manager knows the to do a good job. It is in manager best interest to work with the employee as long as the business needs are met and it is within the bonds of the organization to do so. Military Leadership (1993).
2.9 CAUSES OF PROBLEMS
This motivational issue is not the fault of the employee. By providing feedback and ensuring the feedback is consistent, management should provide the means for employees to motivate themselves to the desired behavior. For example, inconsistent feedback would be for management to say it wants good safety practices, and then frowns on workers who slow down by complying with regulations. Or expressing that careful workmanships is needed, but reinforces only volume production. Feedback must be provided on a continuous basis. If management only provides it during an employee performance rating period, then he is not doing the job. Also, manager ensures that there is not a difference in priorities. Employees with several tasks and projects on their plates must be clearly communicated as to what comes first when pressed for time. With the ever increasing notion to do more with less, he must understand that not everything can get done at once. Employees often choose the task that they enjoy the most, rather than the task they dislike the most. And all too often that disliked task is what needs to get performed first. Military Leadership (1993)
2.10 FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEES’MOTIVATION
No one works for free, nor should they, employees want to earn salary and payment, and employees desire their workers to feel that is what they are getting (Houran. J) www.2020skills.com.Money is the fundamental inducement; no other incentive or motivational technique comes even close to it with respect to its influential value Sara et al.,(2004). It has the supremacy to magnetize, maintain and motivate individuals towards higher performance. Freedrick Taylor and his scientific management associate described money as the most fundamental factor in motivating the industrial workers to attain greater productivity Adeyinka et al (2007)
Research has suggested that reward now cause satisfaction of the employee which directly influences performance of the employee Kalimullah et al.,(2010). Rewards are management tools that hopefully contribute to firm’s effectiveness by influencing individual or group behavior.
All businesses use pay, promotion, bonuses or other type of rewards to motivate and encourage high level performances of employees Reena et al.,(2009). To use salaries as a motivator effectively, managers must consider salary structures which should include importance organization attach to each job, payment according to performance, personal or special allowances, fringe benefits, pensions and so on Adeyinka et al.,(2007).
Leadership is about getting things done the right way, to do that you need people to follow you, you need to have them trust you. And if you them to trust you and do things for you and the organization, they need to be motivated Baldoni J.,(2005). S Theories imply that leader and followers raise one another to higher levels of morality and motivation Rukhmani. K,(2010) . Motivation is purely and simply a leadership behavior. It seems from wanting to do what is right for people as well as from the organization. Leadership and motivation are active processes Baldoni J.,(2005).
Empowerment provides benefits to organizations and makes sense of belonging and pride in the workforce, in fact, it builds a win-win connection among organizations and employees: which is considered an ideal environment in numerous organizations and their employees. Qaratul (2012). Empowering can flourish virtual human capabilities. Empowered employees focus their job and work-life additional importance and this leads to constant progress in coordination and work procedures. Employees execute their finest novelties and thoughts with the sense of belonging, enthusiasim, and delight, in empowered organizations. Adding up, they work with a sense of responsibility and prefer benefits of the organization to theirs Yazdani, B.O. et al.,(2011). Trust is defined as the perception of one about others, decision to act based on speech, behavior and their decision Hasan et al.,(2010). If an organization wants to improve and be suceessful, trust plays a significant role so it should always be preserved to ensure an oragnizations existence and to enhance employee’s motivation Annamalai. T., 2010. It can make intrapersonal and interpersonal effects and influence on the relations and outside the organization. Hassan et al., (2010). No matter how automated an organization may be, high productivity depends on the level of motivation and the effectiveness of the workforce so staff training is an indsipensible strategy for motivating workers. Quratul (2012).One way managers can instigate motivation is to give appropriate information on the sentences of their actions on others Adeyinka et al., (2007).
2.11 MANAGERIAL ACTIONS FOR INCREASED MOTIVATION
Motivation is achieved through different factors with different people. It is therefore important that researchers find out these factors for each employee which can be put into action once identified. The best way of identifying these factors is to issue an Employee Appraisal. If organization has a small number of employees that manager can supervise and control easily, then manager will probably have an ideal what motivates each person and therefore not have to use the appraisal process to determine such factors (although manager should use one for other reasons that concern the performance of organization employees). If organization does have a large number of employee that manager cannot control at anyone time, then he/she may decide to delegate the task of identifying motivational issues to assistant managers or immediate supervisors of the employees. Etc
For manager to motivate organization employees, he/she has to identify which approach to take: does he/she offer a financial or non-financial incentive ?This will depend on what factors motivate the staff member but it may also restricted by company budget which cannot compensate for any wage increase or bonuses and therefore non-financial incentives have to be introduced. Poor pay may lead to staff being dissatisfied at work and therefore any non-financial incentives will not be effective for motivation. It is therefore important that he/she find the right balance between the two.
Increasing motivation through financial rewards is a method that is most common when businesses rely on the quantity of the output of employees. For those employees involved in production, manager could issue a piece rate system where they are paid for each individual product they produce. In which case, they would be motivated to produce as much as possible in order to achieve a high pay: but ensure organization quality control is effective to ensure customer focused areas are not traded-off for quantity. Manager could also introduce a commission payment scheme if organization business relies on selling organization product or services through the means of personal sales (telephone, door-to-door, etc).
Manager may even introduce fringe benefits instead of increasing wages or salaries such as company cars, private health, or interest-free loans from the business. These benefits are often valued higher than wage increases and can be less expensive for the business to provide.
Another financial incentive is the share of the company profits, say, 5%, which is split between organization employees. This incentive can influence team working in the business but manager may find that people benefit from other people’s work if they do not pull their own weight to help increase efficiency. It can therefore be said that profit sharing does not encourage motivation in all employees although it is highly effective in businesses with few employees. This is because they know that their performance will make a difference and will be evidenced by an increase in the business profits.
Sometimes staff may only have motivation to get a task done quickly without care to the quality of the outcome. In which case, management can introduce quality related bonus pay which determines their salary. This salary will be up for review twice a year and reflects their value in the business with respect to, for example, the standard they complete tasks as well as personal sales records, achievement, and so on. This will give the employee the motivation to complete tasks to a high standard and a desire to further excel in the future in order to gain a higher salary; and of course, the feeling of achievement(priceless).
Manager may feel that money is not an effective motivator in organization although it may have some effect in the short term: employees may also see factors aside from money as prime motivators. For whatever reason he/she decides that non-financial incentives are more effective in organization, there are many forms in which they be given. Management can increase motivation by giving employees more responsibility so that they feel their contribution is more valuable to the organization and that their role is of higher importance. Further, he she can promise the chance of promotion if they reach a certain standard or target. Management introduced the process of appraisal which is a huge motivator to employees. This is because they will be recognized for the value they add(or do not add) to the organization by reviewing their progress and achievements over a certain period.
The following are also motivators that can be introduced in organization. To some degree they can also be seen as processes that reduce job dissatisfaction.
1. Job enlargement
2. Job rotation
3. Job enrichment
2.12 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Theories of motivation
The various strategies of motivations are dictated by established theories of motivation. Motivation is said to vary over time and according to circumstances. The following are the theories of motivation:
These theories attempt to explain the specific things which actually motivate the individual at work. These theories are concerned with identifying people’s needs and their relative strengths and the goal they pursue in order to satisfy these needs. These theories place emphasis on the nature of the needs and what motivates individuals. The basis of these theories is the belief that the content of motivation consists of needs (Mullin, 2005). It is essentially about taking action to satisfy needs, and identify the main needs that influence behaviour. An unsatisfied need therefore, creates tension and a state of disequilibrium and in order to restore balance, a goal that will satisfy the need should be identified, and a behaviour pathway that will lead to the achievement of the goal is selected. Not all needs are important to an individual at a time; some may provide a much more powerful drive towards a goal than others. This is dependent on the background and the present situation of the individual. The complexity of needs is further increased because there is no simple relation between needs and goals. The same need can be satisfied by a number of different goals, the stronger the need, the longer its duration and the broader the range of possible goals (Armstrong, 2006). The various postulated content theories are:
1. Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory
2. Herzberg’s two-factor theory
3. Herzberg’s dual factor theory
2.12.1 The Hierarchy of Needs (Abraham Maslow)
The hierarchy of needs theory is based on the premise that people are motivated by the desire to fulfill their need. People seek goals to satisfy their needs. Once a need has been satisfied, need no longer acts as a motivator. In the absence of any other needs, there would be no motivation. According to Maslow, there are a series of levels of needs that explain motivation in people. There are five such levels of needs. These needs fall into a hierarchy as shown below.
• Self-actualization needs (highest level of need)
• Self esteem needs
• Social (love needs or the need to belong)
• Safety or security needs
• Survival or physiological needs (lowest level needs)
The most primitive or lowest level needs are the physiological needs. Examples include the need to eat, for water, to have clothing for comfort, to have adequate sleep, etc (mostly those needs which can be characteristics as bodily needs). As such tend to be temporal in nature. If there is no food, Maslow states that ”Man lives by bread alone” but when there is plenty to eat food cases to be motivator.
The second level consists of safety needs. If-this need is paramount, individuals become safety-seeking tools. While most citizens might not think consciously about the need for safety, citizens do expect some sort of stability or predictability in their surroundings. An adult in a society that is not threatened by wild animals, extremes of temperature, criminals, tyrants, etc. may not be consciously aware of the need for safety. Such adults are not motivated by safety needs. In a broader sense, citizens may feel the need to have financial security in their retirement years, for stability in their place of employment, for constancy in their housing arrangements, insurance against various losses, etc. The need for order is apparent in the general tendency in societies to have religions and to organize into groups. The need for security may be as much as emotional need as it is a physical one.
The third level consists of the needs. This is associated with the need to belong.it is a basic need for other people.it is the need to feel a part of a group. For example, it is natural to have friends, for adults to marry, and in general to share affection with other people. We can easily be associated with dozens of different group of people. The love need is not to be confused with sex; sex may even be considered as a physiological need.
The fourth level consists of the esteem needs. Esteem needs are essentially the need for individuals to have a stable and high evaluation of themselves, for self-respect and the esteem of others. Esteem is the result of real capacity, achievement and respect from others. Self-esteem leads to self-confidence, worth, strength, capability and adequacy of being useful and necessary in the world. This level of need really has two components.one is associated with feelings of personal worth, adequacy, and competence. The second is the need for respect, admiration, recognition, and status is the eyes of others.
The highest level need is self-actualization. Self-actualization consists of being all that one can be. This is clearly the most difficult need to truly understand. It is associated with the unique expression of oneself.it is an active state in which an individual achieves personal growth. It occurs when one reaches one’s innate personal potential. This need may be associated with a compulsion to put one’s talents or abilities to work. The need for self-actualization is associated with a compulsion to put one’s talents or abilities to work. The need for self-actualization is associated with an inner drive, essentially apart from the influence of others. It is often linked with creative expression. However, it is never a fully satisfied need, i.e, the need continues and the individual is never self-actualized.
Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs states that the lowest level needs must generally be satisfied before the next level of need will emerge. If all the needs are unsatisfied, the lowest level need will typically provide the greatest motivation, while the desire to satisfy the higher level needs is diminished. Once a low level need is satisfied, the next level of need emerges as the subsequent goal to attain. If the lower need again emerges, the higher needs become weaker motivators.
In simple terms, the lowest level need that is not satisfied is the primary motivator. In reality, the other needs do not actually disappear, but their influence as motivators may be diminished. As a manager, it is important to understand the level of needs that others have. This is at the root of developing effective incentive programs and in maximizing productivity.
Figure 3: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Finkelstein 2006)
2.12.2 Herzberg’s two-factor theory
The theoretical study of this thesis continues with Frederik Herzberg’s motivation theory. Frederick Herzberg’s two-factor theory demonstrated that human’s behavior is influenced by two sets of factors which are the satisfaction factor and the dissatisfaction factor. He believes that those factors result in human motivation and job satisfaction in the workplace and the absence of them does not cause dissatisfaction but not motivation either. Based on the theory, Frederik Herzberg also pointed out the two components which contribute to the state of satisfaction and dissatisfaction, called motivator factors and hygiene factors as show in figure below (Herzberg 1987)
Figure 2: The two-factor theory of motivation (Weiner 2012)
Motivator factors, including personal achievement, status, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, growth, promotion, and opportunity for advancement, are described as intrinsic factors (Herzberg 1987). The intrinsic factors tend to be intangible and deal with more emotional needs. A typical example of it would be referred to doing something with interest and enjoyment. The presence of motivator factors can lead to an increase in motivation, satisfaction and, thus, higher commitment, but the absence of it will not certainly reduce motivation (Pardee 1990)
On the contrary, hygiene factors, for instances, interpersonal relationships, company policies and administration, working conditions, quality of supervision, job security, salary, and wages and other benefits, and work-life balance, are characterized as extrinsic factors (Herzberg 1987). The extrinsic factors are tangible and classified as basic needs since it refers to doing something for external rewards such as money, fame, or status. It is opposite to intrinsic factors which influence a person’s behaviour by his or her inner desire and motivation. Also, unlike motivator factors, the presence of hygiene factors will not motivate, but could avoid dissatisfaction, however the absence will surely lead to demotivation (Chapman 2017).According to Herzberg (1987), there exist a complex connection between satisfaction and dissatisfaction. They both have a great influence on a person’s behavior and the state of being satisfied or dissatisfied; however, they are affected by different factors and proceeded independently of each other (Herzberg, Mausner & Snyderman 1959; Herzberg 1965). For example, a person indicates himself/herself as a cause to satisfaction, whilst blaming the external factors like the situation or environment for resulting in dissatisfaction (Cummings & Elsalmi
1968; House & Wigdor 1967).Nonetheless, the theory is essential to every manager as it marked the importance of providing hygiene factors sufficiently to the employees as a way of motivation and so far, somewhat resulted in satisfaction. The absence of hygiene factors will lead to demotivation; however, the presence of it is not enough to motivate people. Therefore, managers also have to focus on increasing motivator factors, such as by job enrichment: creating an interesting job and working environment, giving employee more opportunities for advancement, to maximize the competences, taking more responsibilities, experiencing new challenges, and giving employees a praise whenever needed.
2.12.3 Herzberg’ Two Factor Theory
Herzberg (1959) researched into job-related satisfaction and dissatisfaction and came out with a need-based model intended to provide direct managerial application . In this study, He carried out interviews with accountants and engineers using the critical incident technique. The technique is used to gather facts (incidents) from domain experts or less experienced users of the existing system to gain knowledge of how to improve it. The interviews were focused on two questions:
1. What made them feel good about their job?
2. What made them feel bad?
Figure 5. Herzberg dual factor theory of motivation (Bloisi et al., 2003).
2.13 Summary of the Chapter
Although the concept of motivation is extensively recognized as an important tool in attaining high employee and organizational performance and productivity levels, it is however very complex, relative and unique to members of a workforce. This is to say that what motivates or appeals to one individual may in no way appeal to another because people differ in terms of wants and needs. Therefore, it is imperative for organizations, employers and their managers to display positive disposition in applying the concept of motivation in order to elicit reciprocal positive gestures, behaviors and high levels of performance and productivity from the members of its workforce.
Organizational productivity can be enhanced through motivational factors be it intrinsic or extrinsic in nature but the right mix of both factors is essential as no one factor should be underestimated or should one gain preference over the other.
Intrinsic motivational factors are in every way as important as extrinsic motivational factors as such managers must strive to continually deliver a unique mix of value to ensure that the members of its workforce are and stay highly motivated. This is because as motivation increases chances are that productivity will also increase. Therefore an employee’s welfare in terms of well-being, compensation, relationships with co-workers as well as managers, training and development and also work environment should not be taken for granted as far as productivity is concerned. Managers should seek to ensure that employees are extrinsically well motivated with a view to ensuring they remain intrinsically attached to their jobs. It is therefore necessary for organizations and businesses alike to understand that employees are also as important as its customer base and are an asset to the survival of any given business enterprise. Also, it is imperative to understand that the theories being discussed in this research that is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg’s two-factor theory and Vroom’s expectancy theory may have been validated in some literatures and also have been extensively criticized in others for various reasons. However they are still applicable in the present more complicated and diverse work environment. Although a most empirical works have for one reason or the other invalidated these theories, they should not be dismissed but rather should be viewed as a simple model that has successfully made a substantial addition to the field of motivation and has broadened our knowledge of a worker’s approach towards the job. Also it has provided or laid the groundwork for potential researchers who may wish to continually form new and better principles of job satisfaction and workforce motivation. (Smerek & Peterson, 2007) stated that testing a theory may not always be the best approach to determining its worth. This is because theories that endure the test of time, incorporates itself into basic perceptions about managing humans, and continues to generate ideas for potential researchers and intellectuals are theories that have proven their worth. The hierarchy of needs, two-factor and expectancy theories all belong in this category Finally, this review of empirical studies will be concluded with the position of (Davies, 2000), which suggests that motivation both intrinsic and extrinsic have a significant effect on workers.
Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem”
(Kothari 1985). In other words, it describes the process of how the research is done scientifically. It is very important for researchers to know not only the application of research approaches, but also its relevance to the study’s objectives, its meaning, indication, and the reason for choosing a specific technique. Since different problems might have different approaches, being able to understand the theoretical background and variables of different techniques and to know what certain techniques are appropriate for the research problem allows researchers to decide the best methodology used for the research (Kothari 1985).
From what have been acknowledged above, research methodology is a broad concept and the research method only contributes partly of it. According to Kothari
(1985), “when we talk of research methodology we not only talk of the research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method or technique and why we are not using others so that research results are capable of being evaluated either by the researcher himself or by other”. Therefore, it is essential to comprehend precisely what is the purpose of the study, what is (are) the question(s) that researchers want to solve and in what way it will be investigated, how the data is collected and by what methods, and how the data is processed and analysed in order to generate the outcomes and conclusions (Kothari 1985, Howell
This chapter describes the research design utilized specifically, the chapter describes the sample of the study by reflecting on the biographical data of the respondents, the measuring instrument used and issues pertaining to its validity and reliability, the procedure followed to gather the data, the hypotheses and the statistical techniques used to analyze the data.
3.1 Research Design
As mentioned by Kothari (1985), there are many types of research e.g. Descriptive
vs. Analytical, Applied vs. Fundamental, Conceptual vs. Empirical, and so on. However, in fact, all of these are all classified into two basic forms of research methods which are the quantitative method and the qualitative method. The quantitative method is used to examine the research problem by collecting number-based data and converting into applicable statistics. It is fundamentally a deductive process to test a pre-specified concept or hypothesis and to provide researchers
possible effects which drive from the problem observation. Researchers use statistical data, which is concluded from a large sample of population, for analysis. Therefore, the results are considered to be more generalizable and have higher level of validity and reliability. Quantitative research is a structured respond option since it mainly supports fixed answers. However, the form of data collection is varied, for instances, paper survey and online survey (Wyse 2011).
Coopers and Schindler (2006) suggested that the research design is the structure of investigation aimed at identifying variables and their relationships to one another. It refers to the blue print, plan and guidelines utilized in data analysis with respect to the study. It is a necessary step required in a research process if research problems and hypothesis are to be adequately addressed. Descriptive research design and causal research design as well as the survey method was used.
Descriptive research design was used to describe some phenomena because it aids a researcher in gathering, summarizing, presenting and interpreting information for the purpose of clarification while the causal research design was used to describe the effect of one variable on another that is establish cause and effect relationship (Mugenda ; Mugenda, 2003). The researcher also utilized the survey strategy for this study because it creates room for gathering large amounts of data from a sizeable population in a cost-effective way (Osuagwu, 2006).
3.2 RESTATEMENT OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the relationship between motivation and employee productivity?
2. What is the impact of motivation on employee’s productivity?
3. Is the higher motivation leads to higher employee’s productivity?
4. Is monetary incebtives enough as a motivation in an organization?
5. How will employee satisfied for a better efficiency and effectively in an organization?
3.3 RE-STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
HI: There is significant relationship between motivational factor and employee productivity
H2: There is a significant effect of motivation on employee’s performance
H3: The higher the motivation, the higher the employee’s performance.
H4: Monetary incentives and rewards exert is stronger influence on workers than any form of motivational incentive.
3.4 Population of the Study
The study population was 200 staff of the Abuja Electricity Distribution Company Abuja. The research instrument would be surveyed on the workforce of the organization considering the fact that they all fall under the category of employees within an organization (Osuagwu, 2006; Ngechu, 2006).
3.5 Data analysis process
Once the process of data collection is completed, data will be analyzed using quantitative approach. Numeric data was systematized and converted into percentages, charts, and table illustrations to assist the researcher’s progress of making analysis and comparison, as well as concluding in further suggestion and recommendation.
3.6 Sample Frame
This is the list of all the workers used as a representative of the population in a study. It refers to a collection of all the items that constitute a population from which a sample is drawn (Mugenda & Mugenda, 2003). In this research, the sample frame is the list of employees of the Abuja Electricity Distribution Company.
3.7 Determination of Sample Size
Sampling is concerned with the choice of a subgroup of individuals from the target population in order to enable the estimation of the characteristics of the entire population (Singh and Masuku, 2014). It is vital to use an adequate number of subjects so as to ensure a higher probability that results of the study will be more generalizable and interpretable (Mugenda, 2008). The sample size was calculated using the “sample size determining for research activity table” by (Krejcie and Morgan, 1970). In estimating the sample size, a 5 percent margin of error (confidence interval) and 95 percent confidence level was used. The sample size for the study therefore is two hundred (180) for a sample population of tthree hundred and sixty (360)
3.8 The Sampling Technique
The stratified random sampling was utilized in this study. This was done by segmenting the workers based on their job status ranging from senior staff, junior staff, contract and casual workers. This technique is appropriate in order to ensure that every element in the sampling frame has an equal opportunity of being selected (Eshiteti, Okaka, Maragia, Odera & Akerele, 2013, Oladipo & AbdulKadir, 2011; Singh & Masuku, 2014).
3.9 Sources of Data Collection
Data collection involves gathering of relevant and important data used for conducting a particular research work. It is the basis for acquiring data. Data can be collected in two ways which are; primary data and secondary data.
Primary source of data was used for gathering data in this research work. It is the data collected for the purpose of the research, these are the responses generated or obtained from administered questionnaires (Mugenda & Mugenda, 2003).
The questionnaire research instrument was used in this research work to gather information because it helps to access a large number of respondents at a minimal cost. The data collected would be gathered, sorted, and analyzed with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences.
3.10 Instrument for Data Collection
The instrument used for data collection for in this study is the questionnaire, the questionnaires were self-administered. A questionnaire is a structured or semi structured instrument, an array of questions to be answered by persons in order to provide information for a specific purpose. The questionnaire is structured about the research objectives, the research questions and the research hypotheses (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2003). For the purpose of this research, the questionnaire was based on close-ended questions aimed at generating brief and specific answers from the participants. The questionnaire was adopted and modified based on the study of Adeniji, (2011); Kibui, Gachunga, & Namusonge, (2014) and McAllister (1995).
The questionnaire used for this study consists of three sections. Section A was based on the respondents’ bio-data using five items, section B contained 30 statements concerning workplace motivation and section C contained 10 statements about employee productivity. Five-point Likert scale (5-Strongly Agreed, 4- Agree, 3-Undecided, 2- Disagree, 1- Strongly Disagree) that best describes the extent to which the respondents agree with each items in the questionnaire was used.
3.11 Validity of Research Instrument
The validity of test reveals the degree to which a measuring instrument measures what it is intended to measure Norland (1990). He stated that the accuracy and significance of inferences are based on research results. The validity of the research instrument is determined by the amount of build in error in measurement.
Copies of the survey were made accessible to experts in this study such as my supervisor for comments and opinions so as to create validity in terms of contrast, content, criterion and readability in order for it to be suitable for the objectives of the study. Areas that are not needed where removed and other areas where collected and added to the research .Also areas considered irrelevant to the study were removed while others were collected and added to the research work.
Content and face validity was used in determining the validity of the research. Content validity is the extent to which a measuring instrument provides suitable coverage for current study that is research items measure the variables of the study while face validity is face to face check. The validity of the research instrument is to be gotten from the various questions posed to the respondents (Ojo, 2003).
3.12 Reliability of Research Instrument
Reliability is the degree to which a measurement is consistent with similar results over time. Measurements can be reliable and yet not useful but if measurements are useful or valid, it is certainly reliable. Also measurements that lack reliability also lacks validity. Reliable measurements show stability when tests are repeated with similar outcomes (Ojo, 2003).
Reliability of the research instrument involves the consistency of the result obtained with the instrument and if the instrument gives similar, close or the same result if the study is repeated under the same assumptions (Osuagwu, 2006). For Cronbach’s alpha test; this is relating each measurement item with the other measurement item so as to obtain the average inter relationship for all the paired associations. Cronbach’s alpha method of reliability is for measuring the reliability of this research work (Ojo, 2003). The literature reveals that acceptable reliability should fall between 0.70 and above, however 0.60 may be acceptable. A high value of Cronbach’s alpha test means that the stability, reliability and certainty of the instrument used in measurement is very assured (Singh & Masuku, 2014).
3.13 Method of Data Presentation and Analysis
For the analysis of data, the statistical package for social sciences (spss) was used. The statistical tools used to analyze the data include the following: descriptive analysis using frequency tables and percentages. Also, simple linear and multiple regression analysis in respect to the study hypothesis was used to measure the degree of the effects of independent variables on the dependent or outcome variables. Another statistic called R-square would be calculated based on the percentage of variations in the dependent variable that can be explained by the independent variable.
After distributing the questionnaires, data would be collected, coded and analyzed through the use of the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Regression analysis and descriptive statistics would be used to validate the data. Furthermore, distribution tables and frequency and percentages would be used for data interpretation. Also a master data sheet will be prepared with the use of the SPSS.
3.14 Ethical Considerations
i. Management of the school and department were informed through a letter of introduction to the respondents
ii. Oral consent was sought officially by the researcher from the human resource manager of the organization
iii. Researcher ensured confidentiality and privacy of participants’ information
iv. The researcher avoided the use of deceptive statement and questions during the course of the research
v. The researcher ensured that participants were not coerced but participated willingly.
vi. The researcher also ensured that no form of injury physical or mental affected the participants.
The methodology presented certain limitations. The greatest limitation of this research is the sample size. In order to acquire a more concreted result, the survey should have been carried out in a larger sample size, as the case maybe a company located in Abuja. However, due to latest retrenchment in the company, time, resources, and financial limits, the research was restricted to only the current staff in the company.