This chapter presents the relevant theories as well as related literature and studies after the thorough and in-depth study done by the researchers. This will also present the conceptual framework, assumptions made by the researchers to fully understand the study to be done and lastly, this chapter also includes the definition of terms for better comprehension of the study.
This section presents the related theories to be utilized in the study. According to Peter as cited by the USC Libraries (2017), by virtue of its applicative nature, a good theory in the social sciences is of value precisely because it fulfills one primary purpose: to explain the meaning, nature, and challenges associated with a phenomenon, often experienced but unexplained in the world in which we live, so that we may use that knowledge and understanding to act in more informed and effective ways.
Change occurs in all societies. A statement that is a fact among societies, primitive as well as civilized. Population changes, technologies expand, material equipment changes, ideologies, and values take on new components and institutional structures and functions undergo reshaping. The PUV Modernization program is a foretelling sign that change is happening. The study shall make use of the following Developmental Theories as the subject matter on hand deals with the perceptions of individuals towards development in terms of the transportation system.
As the study focuses on the PUV Modernization program dealing with the innovation of the transport system in the country, the study made use of the Modernization theory as one of its major bases. Modernization theory is a theory used to explain the process of modernization that a nation goes through as it transitions from a traditional society to a modern one (Winston, n.d.).
The major assumptions of the theory are: Modernization is a phased and is an irreversible process. It goes through five phases according to Rostow’s theory of economic development (Reyes, 2001). The five stages are: traditional society, the precondition for takeoff, the takeoff process, the drive to maturity, and the high mass consumption society. In addition, once began, modernization cannot be stopped. According to the theory, underdeveloped countries would be unable to resist the impetus towards modernization once they have come into contact with more developed nations. One of the applications of the modernization theory has been the economic field related to public policy decisions.
Modernization is a progressive process which in the long run is not only inevitable but also desirable. According to Coleman, modernized political systems have a higher capacity to deal with the function of national identity, legitimacy, penetration, participation, and distribution than traditional political systems. Finally, modernization is a lengthy process. It is an evolutionary change, not a revolutionary one. It will take generations or even centuries to complete, and its profound impact will be felt only through time (Huntington, 1976).
Evolutionary theory. Sociologists in the 19th century applied Charles Darwin’s work in biological evolution to theories of social change. According to evolutionary theory, society moves toward specific directions. Therefore, early social evolutionists saw society as progressing to higher and higher levels. As a result, they concluded that their own cultural attitudes and behaviors were more advanced than those of earlier societies. The theory is based on the assumption that societies gradually change from simple beginnings into even more complex forms (Khan, 2012). According to social evolutionists, social change meant progress toward something better. They saw change as positive and beneficial. To them, the evolutionary process implied that societies would necessarily reach new and higher levels of civilization.
The PUV Modernization Program is a national program that aims to improve the quality of the transport system in the country. It is a program that was designed to reap good, positive, and beneficial merits towards the overall condition of the society.
Equilibrium theory. Talcott Parsons, a leading functionalist, saw society in its natural state as being stable and balanced. That is, society naturally moves toward a state of homeostasis (Khan, 2012). To Parsons, significant social problems represent nothing but temporary rifts in the social order. According to the equilibrium theory, changes in one aspect of society require changes and modifications in other aspects. Parsons’ equilibrium theory incorporates the evolutionary concept of continuing progress, but the predominant theme is stability and balance. Through this theory, Parsons tries to say that changes occur in one part of society, there must be adjustments in other parts otherwise, strains will occur and the society’s equilibrium will be threatened.
To incorporate the theory in the study being conducted, the researchers thought that since the typical configuration of the Public Utility Jeepneys (PUJ’s) are not the best condition to be driven or utilized in the road and are causing environmental strife among many other ill-effects, a solution to off-set these is through the implementation of the PUV Modernization Program.
Principal-Agent Theory. The principal–agent problem, occurs when one person or entity (the “agent”) is able to make decisions on behalf of, or that impact, another person or entity which is the “principal”. According to Eisenhardt (1989), this dilemma exists in circumstances where agents are motivated to act in their own best interests, which are contrary to those of their principals, and is an example of moral hazard.
The theory is applicable to the many interventions made by the government. The people, serving as the principals by definition after electing their representatives, assume that the officials are making decisions that benefit the best interests of the nation. The perfect agents, having perfect information about these best interests and being motivated to serve the principal, act to benefit the principal even when the principal’s interests are in conflict with their own. Members of the public often assume their representatives in government will represent their ideal interests with few problems. Whenever government officials act in their own private interests, they potentially introduce conflict in their relationship with voters.
The theory is relevant to the study being that the policy makers and planners act as the agents put in position by the principals who are represented by the people, in this case, the commuters or the riding public. The moment they assumed position, they enter into a “contract” with one another. The policy makers and planners shall make programs that should meet the best interest of the people and in return, the people follows the rules and regulations set by the government.
Public Choice and Social Welfare Theory. Developed by James Buchanan and Gordon Tullock to try to explain how public decisions are made. It involves the interaction of the voting public, the politicians, the bureaucracy and political action committees. On the other hand, Social Welfare Theory by definition is a system whereby the state assumes primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens, as in matters of health care, education, employment, and social security. The theory outlines how political and economic forces shape the structural institutions of social welfare. It emphasizes the role of interest groups I defining social welfare as well as provides explanation of why some groups remain marginal o the welfare enterprise.
The public choice, and social welfare theories re considered relevant to the study. Public choice states that voters can influence the policies created in a state and that politicians jostle hard for their votes. Buchanan argued that people vote for those who value them in their best economic interest. The policies and programs made by policy makers and planners are undeniably subjective to the voters’ needs and preferences. According to Buchanan, most people have a strong sense of how changes in the government will benefit them. This relationship between voters and their self-interest drives all types of political involvement and action – not only voting, but also fundraising, lobbying, and grassroots organizing. While social welfare, talks about the needs of the people.
The PUV Modernization Program although met with criticisms, also came face to face with a lot of individuals from different sectors and groups who are in favor for the proposal. This is to suggest that since environmental issues are at the core of the many problems being fought by the society, public officials ought to make policies and programs that shall help mitigate its effects and protect the environment because public interest demands for it.
The related literatures presented in this thesis were gathered from books and journals. The literatures were studied to further improve the thesis and served as groundwork for this research.
The PUV Modernization Program (PUVMP)
On 19 June, 2017, the Department of Transportation issued Department Order No. 2017-011 (Re: Omnibus Guidelines on the Planning and Identification of Public Road Transportation Services and Franchise Issuance) or the Public Utility Vehicle Modernization Program (PUVMP). The PUVMP is a program and a transformational large-scale initiative project of the Duterte administration (LTFRB, 2018).
According to the Land Transportation Franchising Regulatory Board – LTFRB, The PUVMP is not just a vehicle modernization program. It is rather a comprehensive system reform that will entirely change the public land transportation industry. As a matter of fact, the program has the goal of making the country’s public transportation system efficient and environmentally friendly by the year 2020.
The PUV Modernization Program and the Sustainable Development Goals
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), otherwise known as the Global Goals, are a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity (UNDP, 2017). The 17 Goals were built on the accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals, while including new areas such as climate change, economic inequality, innovation, sustainable consumption, peace and justice, among other priorities. The goals are interconnected – often the key to success on one will involve tackling issues more commonly associated with another (UNDP, 2017).
The SDGs work in the spirit of partnership and pragmatism to make the right choices now to improve life, in a sustainable way, for future generations by providing clear guidelines and targets for all countries to adopt in accordance with their own priorities and the environmental challenges of the world at large. The SDGs features inclusivity among its agenda, tackling the root causes of poverty and uniting countries together to make a positive change for both the people and the planet.
The PUV Modernization Program is anchored towards the achievement of several sustainable development goals (SDG’s) provided by the United Nations. Specifically, the program aims to accomplish SDG 9 – Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure with the target of establishing efficient transportation services, generate employment and wealth, and drive economic development, along with SDG 11 – Sustainable Cities and Communities, with its target of providing access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, as well as SDG 13 – Climate Action, with the goal of taking urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts (UNDP, 2017).
According to the DOTr, the program envisions a restructured, modern, well-managed and environmentally sustainable transport sector where drivers and operators have stable, sufficient, and dignified livelihoods while commuters get to their destinations quickly, safely and comfortably (DOTr, 2017).
The success of the program will revolutionize road-based public land transportation and will usher in an improved riding experience for the benefit of the present and future generations of Filipino passengers.
Components of the PUV Modernization Program
Components of the modernization program calls for a system reform and vehicle modernization. The PUV Modernization Program constitutes of the following components: regulatory reform, LGU capacity building, route rationalization, fleet modernization, industry consolidation, financing PUV modernization, vehicle useful life program, pilot implementation, stakeholder support mechanism, and communication.
The Regulatory Reform calls for omnibus franchising guidelines which includes the DOTr/LGU’s local public transport route planning and route rationalization; modernized PUV fleet compliant with safety and environmental laws and standards; and Fleet/industry consolidation for efficient operations. The component LGU capacity building which mandates the LGU’s to conduct Local Transport Planning and to Produce Local Public Transport Route Plans. According to the DOTr (2017), the LGU’s are in a much better position to identify local public transport service requirements being in-charge of formulating the Comprehensive Land Use Plan, Zoning Plans and Traffic Management Plans. The Route Rationalization contains to make the routes more “passenger-friendly” and more responsive to the passenger demand. It also mandates the appropriation per vehicle type depending on the road hierarchy.
The Fleet Modernization Program involves the PUV to comply with the Safety and Environmental Standards and Law which comprises of the following; EURO IV Emissions or better; safety and security features; improved passenger comfort and accessibility as well as PWD friendly. The Fleet Modernization Program also includes incentives for manufacturers.
The Industry Consolidation states that existing route operators should form cooperators and consortiums. Consolidation benefits comprises of the following; Access to credit facilities, shared O&M costs, operational efficiency via fleet management system.
It was stated that operator’s main concern is access to financing. As a response, financing the PUV modernization involves a special Loan Program with Landbank and DBP in order to soften the impact and assist small operators who will be affected by the PUVMP the. Along with this, there would also be government subsidies, as proceeds from the gains of the Comprehensive Tax Reform Program. There would also be an Automatic Fare Collection System (AFCS) which facilitates easier repayment to lending institutions, reducing collection risks.
The Vehicle Useful Life Program calls for the phasing-out jeepneys, buses and other Public Utility Vehicles (PUVs) that are at least 15 years old and replacing them with safer, more comfortable and more environmentally-friendly alternatives over the next three years. Replacement vehicles are required to have at least a Euro 4-compliant engine or an electric engine to lessen pollution. Below is a sample of the Modernized PUJ model with its new exterior designs and features under the PUV Modernization Program
Furthermore, Stakeholder Support Mechanism offers training, livelihood and job opportunities programs to stakeholders affected by the modernization program. This includes the support and assistance of some government agencies as such as TESDA’s for the training programs, DOLE for DILEEP (Integrated Livelihood and Emergency Employment), DSWD’s for their Sustainable Livelihood Programs and DTS/Microfinance/SME development (DOTr, 2017). The Communication component of the PUVMP is for effectively communicating the right message to the target stakeholders.
The pilot implementation which is to support the readiness of the PUV Modernization Program and gain more support from the stakeholders. Many government agencies, as such as the DOTr, LTFRB, LTO and OTC, as well as the other concerned agencies will conduct a Pilot Implementation in order to review and assess whether the new policies are responsive and efficient in achieving the program’s intended outcomes (LTFRB, 2018). According to the DOTr, the activities for the pilot implementation starts at the 3rd quarter of the year 2017 in Metro Manila. The year 2018 to 2019 will be implemented in the remaining areas of Metro Manila, as well as Metro Cebu, and Metro Davao. While the year 2019 to 2020 will most likely focus on the highly urbanized cities, rest of the country (DOTr, 2017).
Some proposed requirements include CCTV cameras, speed limiters and GPS monitors. The Land Bank of the Philippines estimates that each jeepney replacement will cost around ?1.4 million to ?1.6 million.
Below is a sample infographic about the PUV Modernization Program (PUVMP) which entails the programs advantages once implemented.
Sample Infographic about the Advantages of the PUV Modernization Program (PUVMP). Photo Source: Lawrence Ruiz (Own Work)
Various transport groups have criticized the program as “anti-poor”. It is claimed that, under the program, most drivers and small-time operators would be unable to afford replacement units and that corporate entities would seek to monopolize the market and impose fare hikes on commuters.
PUJ’s have been constant companions for most Filipinos serving as the primary mode of transportation due to their accessibility and low fare rates. PUJs are also link with the cultural value of representing Filipino identity. The creation of jeepneys can be traced as far back as the Second World War. According to Balinski (2015), when enterprising Filipinos saw the possibility of it being a mode of transportation, they took the opportunity and turned it into ingenuity, turning the war-remnant vehicles into the new longer and colorful jeepneys that have become a Philippine icon. Jeepneys ply several routes around the country, especially those areas where bigger buses cannot serve.
Modernized Jeepneys – Designs and Key Features
On April 03, 2018, the Department of Transportation held a Public Utility Vehicle (PUV) Modernization Expo to showcase various vehicle models from different manufacturers.
Class 1 PUJ vehicles. Are able to accommodate as much as 9 to 22 passengers, all seated. The national standard for Class 1 vehicles has yet to be approved by the Bureau of Philippine Standards (BPS) under the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI).
Meanwhile, Class 2 PUJ vehicles can carry more than 22 seated passengers. The main difference with Class 1 vehicles is that standing passengers can also be accommodated. According to the DOTr, Class 2 vehicles are best fit for urban travel.
Class 3 PUJ vehicles can carry more than 22 seated passengers as well, but it is more spacious than Class 2. Standing is not allowed as it is meant for longer routes. Below are some of the PUJ models showcased in the Modernization Expo.
Class 1 PUJ vehicle: Tojo Motors, a Filipino automotive manufacturing company, displays its e-jeepney categorized as a Class 1 vehicle. It can carry up to 22 passengers, facing one another (1st and 2nd photo).
Class 2 PUJ vehicle: Star 8 Green Technology Corporation’s vehicle is without air-conditioning. It runs through solar power (3rd photo). On the other hand, the class 2 vehicle prototype of Isuzu motors Philippines has a space that can fit a wheel chair (4th photo).
Class 3 PUJ vehicle: Isuzu motors Philippines class 3 prototype features air-conditioning (5th photo). While, Hyundai’s class 3 model has none.
As mentioned, the modernization plan aims to replace all PUVs aged 15 years and older with environment-friendly vehicles that have safety features. All prototype vehicles feature automated and integrated fare collection under the Beep system, a closed-circuit television camera (CCTV), a global positioning system (GPS), and a dashboard camera.
Vehicles are seen as a major source of both air pollution and congested roads, particularly in urban areas, where vehicle concentration is the greatest. According to the partial results of the National Emissions Inventory in 2012, 71% of air pollution comes from “mobile sources” (NEI, 2012) – in other words, it comes from the vehicles on the road. Automobiles also contribute to global warming, accounting for a large and growing share of greenhouse gas emissions worldwide.
Road Fatalities and Injuries
In 2008, there were 7.7 road deaths per 100,000 population (World Health Organization, 2013). According to data compiled by the Traffic Management Group of the Philippine National Police, the top 5 causes of road accidents in 2001 were determined to be: (1) failure to yield right of way to other vehicle or pedestrian, (2) reckless overtaking, (3) improper turning, (4) following too closely or tailgating and (5) exceeding lawful speed limit (Palmiano, 2006).
Common Contributors to Road Safety Problems
According to a study by Mendoza (2006), 85% of road accidents in the Philippines was caused by driver error or violations. The study determined that young drivers, male drivers, public jeepney drivers and drivers with low educational attainment had a significantly higher intention to commit violations. The study also showed that the social environment played a significant role; intentions to commit violations were higher when other drivers were seen to commit violations and when there were no traffic enforcers around. Mendoza (2006) summarized the findings of the study in the “path of influence”:
If a driver has a college degree and more driver training, the driver has more knowledge of rules. Thus, the driver has low risk and weak intention to commit traffic violation. The opposite can be said for drivers without a college degree and with limited driver training (Mendoza, 2006).
Status of Transportation Safety Policies, Roadway Infrastructure, Prevention Programs
Since 2006, the Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board has initiated road safety programs, such as the Land Transport Drivers and Operators Academy, monitoring terminals, garages, transfer stations and other critical transport facilities and a comprehensive preventive maintenance schedule for public utility buses, taxis and vans. In 2008, then-president Gloria Arroyo issued Executive Order No. 774 calling for an implementation of road sharing on national roads. According to the executive order, roads shall be divided into half lengthwise, wherein the space shall be used for all-weather sidewalks, bicycle lanes and edible gardens. However, its implementation is still elusive. In February 2014, the Share the Road Movement filed a petition asking the Supreme Court to compel the national government to implement the said executive order (Brizuela, 2014).
The Peculiar Jeepney’s
Jeepneys are the most common mode of transportation in the Philippines. Modeled after the American jeep left behind during World War II (Makalintal, 2003), they were creatively modified by Filipinos who found the WWII remnants as a source of income and a mode of transportation. Considering its history, the Philippine jeepney is considered as a cultural icon, a mirror of resilience, optimism, and ingenuity of the Filipinos.
In 1981, R. B. Ocampo described how the Philippine jeepney was locally remodeled to have larger capacities from six to fourteen passengers. The report also showed the route characteristics, gross income, operating cost, and net income per driver. Barwell. (1985) provided a description of the jeepneys, its ordinary routine and the average revenue and operating expense based on the interviews with six jeepney operators.
Above is an illustration of the typical configuration of PUJ’s. Bautista (1995) identified several components that contributed to the increasing number of serious accidents in the City of Manila as well as the locations where such transpired. One of his findings was that jeepneys ranked second in terms of proportions of accident by vehicle while trucks and buses ranked first and third.
Jeepney manufacturing companies use second-hand Japanese engines, reconditioned or overhauled and fitted to the newly assembled PUJ body. The common perception that a jeepney is old, inefficient and notorious smoke belchers and older vehicles burn more fuel, which carries the risk of increasing air pollution due to exhaust gas (Kirby, et. al. 1986). Diesel-fed jeepneys used for public transport contribute to 15% of the particulate matter (PM) emissions and 11% to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Metro Manila according to the IES Philippines Study (Manila Observatory, 2005).
Jeepneys are semi-enclosed, the driver and passengers are easily exposed to urban pollution and, therefore, are at risk to health effects caused by pollutants, such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). But, unlike the passengers and other commuters, the jeepney drivers spend more than one half of the day working in the vehicle. This is the reason why their exposure is considered occupational. Many studies on VOC exposure have been conducted in other vehicles such as cars, buses and motorcycles as well.
Criticisms to the Program
Even before its launch, the program was received negatively by various transport groups and ultimately faced criticisms throughout its creation as well as implementation phase. While Senate Bill 1284 and House Bill 4334, the program’s enabling legislation, were still pending in February 2017, jeepney drivers launched numerous strikes and demonstrations in Metro Manila and in key cities throughout the country (n.a., 2017).
According to the Kilusang Mayo Uno (KMU) and Pinagkaisang Samahan ng Tsuper and Opereytor Nationwide (PISTON), the ?1.4 million to ?1.6 million cost of new jeepneys will adversely affect the livelihood of about 600,000 public utility jeepney (PUJ) drivers and 300,000 small operators. The group claims that commuters will also be hit with an increased fare of at least ?20.00 from ?8.00 as the average fare (Roxas, 2017).
Moreover, according to the Crispin B. Beltran Resource Center (CBBRC), operators, drivers and commuters stand only to lose from the program. By the CBBRC’s estimates, the minimum requirement of 20 jeepneys per franchise will require an investment of at least ?30 million, effectively barring small-time and independent jeepney operators. It is also claimed that the government’s promises of lighter traffic are “bogus”, since jeepneys comprise around only 2 percent of vehicular traffic in the NCR. Foreign and local companies will allegedly take advantage of the situation by monopolizing technology and increasing fares by up to 50 percent (Beltran, 2017).
On September 24, 2017, transport group Stop & Go Coalition held a transportation strike to show disapproval to the program. The LTFRB board member and spokesperson Aileen Lizada said that Commonwealth, Litex, SM Fairview and Sandiganbayan in Quezon City in the country’s metro were only the areas that were affected (Philstar, 2017).
And during October 16, 2017, PISTON held a two-day transportation strike. In response, the Malacanang announced the suspension of classes at all levels and of government work on October 16, 2017 (Roxas, 2017). The news media outlet Philstar has reported, that in a press statement, Alliance of Concerned Transport Organizations President Efren de Luna stated that their group did not join the transport strike as they found that the PUV modernization wants to ensure the security of passengers and to have an environmentally sustainable mode of transportation (Philstar, 2017).
Senator Grace Poe, chair of the Senate public services committee, has expressed doubt over the governments’ readiness to implement the program nationwide. According to the senator, the government will have to shell out ?415 billion for full implementation of the scheme, far more than the ?2.26 billion it approved. Poe has suggested that the Program be implemented in select cities instead (ABS-CBN News, 2017).
Senator Poe and Senate Majority Leader Vicente Sotto III have called for a “middle ground” solution, saying that old but road worthy PUVs should be allowed to operate. However, the DOTr has given no clear commitment to their suggestion (Ager, 2017).
The related studies presented in this chapter is a collection of local and foreign studies with local and foreign authors. Studies include transport network and alternative modes of transportation among many others.
Effective transport network
An effective transportation network is an essential driver for the economic and social development of a city. Transportation systems have been described as the “lifeblood” of cities in recognition this critical role. (Miller, et al, 2016)
Ramani et al. (2011) proposed a general sustainability assessment framework for transportation agencies along with a review of key sustainable transportation concepts. This framework presents a 5 step process, with feedback loops between each level of the process. The five components of the process are: (1) understanding sustainability; (2) transportation sustainability goal development; (3) development of objectives; (4) development of performance measures; and (5) performance measure application. Investing in public transit is often framed as a critical mechanism to reducing auto dependence and lessening the impact of transportation networks on society and the environment, while also enabling transportation to continue to play a critical role in sustainable development.
Sustainability in transportation is a widely acknowledged necessity due to triple bottom line impacts – indicators allow impacts of transportation to be recognized and measured and can be used as a basis for policy making (Bongardt et al., 2011).
Previous Efforts for Sustainable Mobility
According to the researchers, numerous technological options have been explored before, but the past initiatives have taken a “piecemeal” approach and have not been sufficient to significantly bring forth change in the industry and improve the services offered by jeepneys (Blacksmith Institution, et al; 2016). One example of these was the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project proposal on 2007 of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) in terms of replacing the old engines used in jeepneys by new engines to lessen the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
DENR engaged the Mitsubishi UFJ Securities Co., Ltd. in collaboration with the University of the Philippines National Center for Transportation Study, Inc. (UP-NCTS) for the said proposal. It is to improve fuel efficiency of 60,000 jeepneys operating in Metro Manila by replacing old engines with new ones. The feasibility study of the proposal found that the second-hand engines used by jeepneys cost about PHP 80,000-120,000, whereas new engines cost about PHP 300,000. Proceeds from the sale of certified emission credits (CERs) through the CDM were needed to offset the cost of the new engines. However, the projected sale of CERs were not deemed enough to procure new engines, thereby needing additional public and/or private funding, which the project failed to secure.
In 2011, an initiative on promoting liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for jeepneys was launched. The objective of the project was to promote retrofitting of jeepneys by fitting them with LPG-fed engines or, alternatively, to offer a new chassis and bodies fitted with LPG engines. By using LPG engines, the jeepneys became Euro-III compliant and thus had lower emissions. However, the LPG jeepney faced several challenges, including the cost of engine and transmission components, estimated at PHP 350,000, and the limited LPG stations. Although the individuals and companies who changed their engines experienced improved reliability and reduced operating expenses, the uptake was not as wide as expected. The larger “new look LPG jeepney” based on a truck chassis, with the advantage of being built from all new components, compared with the surplus parts that are used by many jeepney builders, cost about P1.1 million.
Electric jeepneys have also been promoted as environmentally friendly alternatives to old diesel engine jeepneys. These were first introduced in Makati in 2008 through an initiative of the Institute for Climate and Sustainable Cities (ICSI) and PHUV (Philippine Utility Vehicle). Limitations in battery capacity limited e-jeepneys to serve shorter routes. While the entire electric vehicle industry is growing steadily since the issuance of Executive Order 488 (s. 2006) – which supports the manufacturing of e-vehicles – the uptake of electric jeepneys has not been as transformational as initially expected. Government support to the industry has reduced the tariff rate for e-vehicle components to zero, thereby allowing e-vehicle manufacturers to import components at a more affordable price. A Senate bill (S.B. 2151), known as the Electric, hybrid and other alternative fuel vehicles Promotion Act of 2014, intends to strengthen the incentives for such vehicles.
Globally, there has been significant moves towards initiating the use of electric-based vehicles in public transport fleets (Chauhan, 2015). The Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG) has set its sights on re-fleeting 50% of its bus fleet into electric-driven units by 2020 and already has a few units running commercially on a pilot route. It is an environmental and economical strategic move considering the low power cost in the city (Kim, 2012). The use of electric buses for public transport was initiated by Mallaca (John, 2015) and Los Angeles (Campbell, 2015). India is looking at replacing 30 diesel and CNG buses with electric buses by the end of 2016.
Current technological and industry developments are expected to improve the performance of electric vehicle components and consequently reduce their prices. Battery and controller costs are expected to fall by 6% and 2% respectively each year until 2020, after which minimal reductions are expected. The average cost of electric motors is projected to fall 2% per year until 2020, after which linear variations are expected, with an additional 16% reduction on reaching 2030 (Duleep et al, 2011). South Korea has developed, and is currently field testing, a pair of electric commuter buses that recharge wirelessly while driving over specially equipped roads (Quiqley, 2013), while South Carolina is evaluating highly efficient 40-foot (12m) electric buses which promise a 21.4 miles per gallon diesel equivalent compared to the average city bus mileage of 3 miles per gallon (Casey, 2015). While these developments have sparked interest in the prospects of EV-based public transport, it has also prompted strategies to ensure that they do not prematurely roll them out on a massive scale and miss out on the benefits of more technologically and economically sound variants expected in the future.
At present, there are two main electric jeepney fleets running commercially in Metro Manila. One EV fleet has been operating in the Makati “green route” since 2008. It initially ran as a demonstration project (free-of-charge service) and began operating commercially in 2012 after the transport service franchise was awarded. The fleet consists of 16-seater units fitted with 5 kW AC 72 Volts AC Motors with peak speeds between 30-40 km/h and running on 200 Ah lead acid battery sets. Some of the vehicles are fitted with direct drives while others have four-step transmission systems. On average, the units cost PHP 650,000 each. The energy economy of these vehicles may be pegged at 4.54 km/kWh based on the operators’ data. Maintenance records indicate that the batteries need to be replaced every year, adding PHP 72,000 to the annual operating costs. Its lower passenger capacity compared with the baseline jeepneys in Metro Manila is, however, a big downside which affects revenues, specifically during peak hours. The Philippine Utility Vehicle Company (PHUV) – a company granted incentives for a pioneer status in the EV industry (such as tax holidays and duty–free importation of raw materials and capital equipment) by the Board of Investments – plans to roll out 15kW (with 30kW peak), 21 seater electric jeepneys during the year, but only units with minimal technical and performance are available to date (Velasco, 2015).
A critical issue relating to the adoption of electric vehicles is the power generation mix. From a health perspective, replacing old, dilapidated diesel vehicles with electric vehicles will reduce roadside emissions and will significantly reduce the exposure of urban populations to air pollution. On the other hand, ensuring a higher percentage share of cleaner and renewable energy sources is critical in minimizing the impacts of the expected increase in electricity demand due to electric vehicles. In the conduct of this cost-benefit study, a baseline power generation mix scenario was used based on the assumption that fossil-fuel fired plants will be added to the system to meet the future demand for electricity (i.e. subcritical coal plants to supply base loads and diesel plants to accommodate peaking loads) (Del Mundo et al, 2015). A low emissions development scenario (LEDS) for the power generation mix was also utilized in the calculation to reflect the costs and benefits of utilizing an optimal mix of power generation sources, including renewables such as wind and solar energy. A Diesel-Electric hybrid vehicle is one which uses two different energy sources. A diesel-electric hybrid utilizes a combination of a diesel-fueled internal combustion engine and an electric motor. It comes in a number of configurations, including series hybrids, parallel hybrids and blended hybrids. In a series hybrid, there is no mechanical link between the engine and drive axle. The engine powers a generator that charges the battery pack when the battery state of charge drops below a certain level. The battery pack drives an electric motor that turns the bus wheels via a conventional rear axle. In a parallel hybrid, the engine powers the drive axle and a generator that can either charge the battery pack or directly drive the axle. Blended hybrids use a combination of the two types of drive systems. The batteries or super-capacitors which the electric motor use are continually recharged by the engine or from energy generated during braking – energy that would otherwise.
The analysis of the proposed jeepney modernization program, which embodies a combination of different technologies (suited for different types of routes) shows that the program can potentially result in highly significant savings (monetized benefits).
Public Awareness Campaigns for Sustainable Mobility
Several developed and developing countries have used information, education, persuasion, and awareness-raising campaigns in favor of sustainable urban transport with various, but generally limited, degrees of success. Typically, the more effective a measure is, the more resistance it evokes. A number of general strategies to raise awareness on sustainable transport policy can be employed (Box 1).
Box 1. General strategies to raise awareness on sustainable transport.
According to Pojani and Stead (2015), in developing countries, lower-cost activities are likely to be more feasible and constructive (e.g., car-free days, bicycle-to-work days, free-vehicle-inspection days, bicycle film festivals, car-pooling days, free-public-transport days, and media attention). Effective public awareness activities necessitates novel approaches to capture the public’s attention. Also, campaigns must advance specific ideas (e.g., the creation of cycle tracks) rather than vague notions (e.g., transport sustainability in general). Experience suggests that public awareness campaigns need to be targeted and integrated (presenting all the urgent urban transport concerns as interconnected and interdependent). Public awareness activities must also encourage shifts in existing paradigms.
In summary, sustainable mobility is an ever-growing subject and trend to different societies in the world. Studies have shown that governments from all over the world are taking interest and are putting so much effort to deliver a much better transport system in their own respective countries. There are also several studies that support the effectivity of upholding such sustainable transport network that shows great improvements to the overall transportation system of a country.
Figure 4 and 5 shows the schematic diagram of the conceptual model used in the study.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE DEPENDENT VARIABLE
Figure 4. The Schematic Diagram of the Conceptual Framework used in the study
This study utilized the Independent Variable – Dependent Variable (IV-DV) paradigm. The independent variable consists of the commuters’ profile including age, sex, and monthly income, and the PUJ drivers’ profile including their age, monthly income and the age of the PUJ unit that they’re using. Along with the respondent’s profile, the traditional design and configuration of PUJ’s as well as the fleet modernization features and requirements based on the PUV Modernization Program are also part of the independent documents. These contents are necessary inputs to provide relevant information as bases to evaluate how the implementation of the PUV Modernization Program may significantly affect the perception of commuters towards public transportation.
The dependent variable consist of the commuters’ perception towards the current Public Utility Jeepney (PUJ) models as well as the modernized PUJ models under the PUV Modernization Program in terms of design, efficiency, safety, reliability, and cost. These inputs were gathered through the use of standard questionnaires and interviews together with the study’s respective respondents.
A correlation analysis was implored to determine the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variables. The contribution of the study which is an evaluation on how the PUV modernization program affects the commuters perception on public transportation and a reference material to be used by policy makers and planners for their up and coming programs.
INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT
Figure 5. The Schematic Diagram of the Conceptual Framework used in the study
The study shall also make use of the Input-Process-Output (IPO) paradigm. The input consists of the respondents, both commuters and jeepney drivers’ profile. Along with the profile of the respondents, the perception to the current Public Utility Jeepney (PUJ) models and the modernized PUJ under the PUV Modernization Program in terms of design, safety, reliability, efficiency and cost shall also be part of the input documents. All of which are necessary contents to provide relevant information as bases to evaluate the effects of the PUV Modernization Program.
The process sector focuses on the analysis and evaluation of the statement of the problem through profiling as well as the standard questionnaire about the PUV Modernization Program. These processes are intended to provide the proper mechanisms in approaching the data to ensure that the expected results may be realized. The Outputs expects the contribution of the study which is a reference material to be used by policy makers and planners for their up and coming programs, the integration of sustainable mobility in the Local Government Unit through public campaign awareness, as well as the
Hypothesis of the Study
The researchers hypothesize that the PUV Modernization Program significantly affect the perception of commuters towards public transportation as such as they will be more engaged and optimistic in utilizing these. There is a big difference between how the commuters perceive the current Public Utility Jeepney (PUJ) models and how they perceive the modernized PUJ models based on its design, safety, reliability, cost; and efficiency. Moreover, there a significant relationship between the respondents profile and their perceptions on the traditional as well as the modernized Public Utility Jeepney (PUJ) models, as such as the respondents aged 35 and below would be more accepting of the modernization program as suppose to the older respondents.
Definition of Variables
The following variables identified are defined in accordance with their usage in the study to provide them with further clarity:
Age. This refers to the length of time that a person has lived or a thing has existed.
Cost. This refers to the reasonable, guaranteed fares with minimum zone fares (if any) and easy transfer mechanisms and possibly cost reductions for passes and special groups (students, children, senior citizens, and others). Cost should be perceived as favorable compared to automobile use for the same trip.
Design. This refers to the overall configuration and aesthetics that a vehicle projects and may vary across national cultures. Naturally, the design must also have practical considerations in mind. This is all important because the design of a public transport system can become a symbol of that city.
Efficiency. This includes high average speeds with minimum dwell times and the absence of traffic delays, sufficient stops for minimum walking (but not so many as to increase travel time), coordinated schedules and transfer points with minimum user discomfort, direct routing, and express and special-event service when warranted. Efficiency also requires an easily maintained system with adequate maintenance facilities, an efficient management system, and minimal staff necessary to sustain efficient service.
Public Utility Jeepney (PUJ). This refers to the most popular means of public transportation in the Philippines. PUJ’s are usually made out of second hand engines that contributes to the air pollution in the Philippines.
Public Utility Vehicle Modernization Program (PUVMP). This refers to the program formulated by the DOTC which envisions a restructured, modern, well-managed and environmentally sustainable transport sector where drivers and operators have stable, sufficient, and dignified livelihoods while commuters get to their destinations quickly, safely and comfortably.
Reliability. Depends on low breakdown rate, with special services provided when breakdowns do occur, adherence to schedules with adequate information about any service changes, and guaranteed availability of transfer.
Safety. This (on vehicles and at stops) includes not only safety from accidents but also passenger safety from theft and physical violence, as well as vehicle safety from vandalism.
Sex. This refers to either of the two sexes (male and female), especially when considered with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological ones. The term is also used more broadly to denote a range of identities that do not correspond to established ideas of male and female.