By responsibility a literature review you are able to critically
summaries the current information in the area under search, identifying any
strengths and weaknesses in previous work. A good and full literature look for
will provide the context within which to rest your study. Therefore, before
commencing writing my research proposal, it will need to allocate time to read
the literature that is relevant to my proposed research study. Literature
is an impression about the important aspects of the topic. It needs to
recognize data sources that other researchers have used. And to identify and
become well-known with the style of writing that is used mainly within
the ethos of the area that you are researching. Finally to identify the association
between concepts and identify ideas for further reflection. A
number of diversified studies had been passed out about the use of aqua-drugs
and chemicals on aquatic animal health management. These papers hold a lot of
information about aqua-drugs and chemicals. The following information, relevant
to the present study was briefly reviewed.
Afnan et al. (2015) studied that the most
common dose of lime used by the farmers during pond preparation (62.67%) and
culture period (53%) is 0.5-1 kg/40m2. Urea and TSP used by the farmers mostly
during culture period with most common dose of 100-150g/40m2(37.3%) and 50-100
g/40m2 (68%) respectively.. For pond and water quality management lime, urea
and TSP are mostly used. Bleaching powder, Timsen, EDTA, Polgard, Virex,
Aquakleen, Germnill, Pond safe were widely used as disinfectant. Health
management and disease treatment were the major activities where farmers
were seen to use a lot of chemicals.
et al.(2017) studied that the practice of chemicals and antibiotics for fish
health management in freshwater aquaculture in Gowainghat and Balaganj Upazilla
of Sylhet, Bangladesh.. A range of chemicals including antibiotics were found
available in market and being used in the aquaculture sector. Lime, salt,
potassium permanganate, sumithion, melathion, formalin, bleaching powder,
malachite green were some commonly used traditional chemicals in heath
management. Of the new products JV Zeolite,Mega Zeo Blue, Green zeolite, 5 Star
Aqua, Aqua C, Aquavit, Bio-Ox, Oxy plus and Bio care were most widely used
compounds. About 18 trade names of antibiotics were found and their major
active ingredients were oxytetracycline, chlorotetracycline, amoxicillin,
co-trimoxazole, ulphadiazine, azithromysin.
Lipton (1991) studied the consequence of antibiotic compounds
on the growth inhibition of fish pathogen Aeromonas
hydrophila isolated from the haemorrhagic lesions of Laheo rohita. The author found that among the ten antibiotics,
gentamicin, Doxycycline oxytetracyclin, tetracycline. streptomycin. penicillin chlorotetracyclin
and neomycin inhibited the growth of the bacteria. Antibiotics gentamicin,
streptomycin and tetracycline were effective at 10 mg/L. Tetracycline was
effective at 20 mg/L and gentamicin. neomycin and streptomycin at 50 mg/L for Aeromonas hydrophila.
Banik et al. (1991) carried out examination on the
effect of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) and showed that application of
lime in ponds gave 68% positive result.
Reilly (1992) stated that aquaculture products with
certain food safety issues such as the danger of contamination of products by
chemical and biochemical agents. Various food safety issues ranging from
food-borne parasitic infections, pathogenic diseases, residues of agro
chemicals, veterinary drugs and heavy metal contamination, identified as
potential hazards of aquaculture products emanate from inappropriate practices
and environmental pollution.
Plumb (1992) suggested using potassium permanganate
for the treatment of external protozoan and external bacterial infections. The
author applied potassium permanganate at a dose of 5 to 10 mg/L for 1 hour and
2 to 6 mg/L in tanks and in pond treatment, respectively. in the both cases,
the author obtained positive result.
China buy and Lilley (1992) reviewed that quick lime
and slaked Lime both had a very high pH and in addition to increased
alkalinity, could have a sterilizing effect against disease. A range of
chemotherapeutics were used to control fish disease.
Yadava et al. (1993) observed the toxicity of
herbicides on weeds in pond. The safe concentration of five herbicides was
simezine at 0.5 ppm, dalapon at 0.75 ppm diquate at 1.0 ppm, MSMA at 1.5 ppm
and 2, 4-D at 2.0 ppm for the control of Ceratophyliwn dernersum.
Floyd (1993) obtained bath treatment was effective
in controlling external infection in fish. The author observed that copper
sulfate, formalin and potassium permanganate had similar efficacy against
protozoan infestations on skin, gills and fins. The author also found that of
the three chemicals, potassium permanganate had broader spectrum of in its
activity, as it was very effective against both bacterial and fungal infection.
Smith et al. (1994) found that oxytetracycline is
one of the most widely used antibacterial in aquaculture. The vast majority of
oxytetracyc line supplied in mediated feed can be found in hatchery effluent at
concentrations that account for newly the entire drug supplied.
Ahrncd and Rab (1995) suggested that addition of lime
to ponds during the culture period decreased the severity of EUS outbreaks.
Tamuli and Shanbhogue (1996) reviewed the efficacy
of some commonly available chemicals in the treatment of anchor worm (Lernaea
maelraensis) infection in India. The authors used potassium permanganate,
forrnain and sodium chloride bathing treatment twice a day over five
consecutive days at 30 ppm KMnO4 for 20 minutes was found to be 100%
effective in killing adult and embedded larval parasites.
Prasad et al.
(1996) mentioned that chloramphenicol and oxytetracycline would be effective
drug in curing EUS lesion, tetracycline and streptomycin were less effective in
Li et al.
(1996) studied on the efficacies of formalin. Potassium permanganate. Sodium
chloride and copper sulphate as prophylactic treatments for saprolegniosis.
Formalin (25 mg/L) was effective as both for a prophylactic and post infective
treatments. Sodium chloride at 5000 mg/L was effective in preventing
Inglis (1996) stated that excessive use of
antibiotics contributes the development of resistant strains of bacteria.
Singh and Singh (1997) obtained seven isolates of
Edwardsiella garcia and showed that all the isolates were resistant to colistin
and gentamicin but sensitive to ciprofloxacin. chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid,
nitrofurantioin, ofloxacin and streptomycin.
GESAMP (1997) found that for soil and water
treatments, alum (aluminium sulfate) at the rate of 10-20 mg/L, gypsum at
concentrations of 250-1000 mg/L, lime at dose of 100-8000 Kg/ha, geoiite at a
dose of 100-500 Kg/ha. Antibacterial agent amoxiciflin, nitrcffuran. macrolides
active against grani-positive bacteria. Used of suiphonamides to control
diseases such as furunculosis, enteric red mouth disease and vibriosis.
Burka et al. (1997) observed that one of the
commonly used products was benzalkoniurn chloride, applied to inhibit bacterial
growth in the gills of salmon. –
UHey and higHs (1997) carried out trials arid
observed that 5 ppm corprol (a chelated copper compound) prevented induction of
EUS lesions in abraded African catfish while malachite green (0.1 mg/L) was
partly effective and formalin (25 mglL) was ineffective. The authors also
reported that malachite green arid hydrogen peroxide showed a fungicidal activity
against Aphanomyces invadwu in vitro trial.
Saha et al. (1998) evaluated the effects of various
treatments for tail and fin rot f Asian catfish, Clarius batrachiss used
various doses of salt (NaCl), formalin, malachite green, acriflavin and
oxytctracycline, and it was shown that actiflavin dip treatment (6 and 8 ppm)
gave the best result
Rahman and Chowdhury (1999) conducted trials of
chemotherapy to control the ulcer disease affecting catfish. The best result
was obtained by a successive bath in 1-2% NaCI suspension and subsequent oral
treatment with commercial oxytetracycline at a dose of 75 mg/Kg body weight of
fish for 5 days.
Wilkinson (2000) mentioned that liming materials
might contribute substantially to fish yields by improving conditions for fish
and by enhancing the primary productivity of the pond. Alum is an effective
flocculants for reducing clay turbidity. Potassium pennanganate is a useful
disinfectant but ponds suffering from oxygen depletion.
Sarker (2000) conducted an experiment to test drug
sensitivity of five isolates of Aeror Aonas sorbia and found that most of the
isolates were found sensitive to oxytetracyc line, oxolinic acid and
chioramphenicol but resistance to crythromycin and suiphamethoxazole.
Zahura (2001) stated that malachite green, salt and
lime, formalin and potassium pennanganate application by immersion was give the
good result in the treatment of fungus affected flab. A combination of salt and
lime was found to be suitable in reducing Aphwsomyces invadans infection. In
field condition, a preventive treatment with equal ratio of salt and lime were
found to be most effective in preventing the occurrence of flings in the
investigated fish ponds of Mymensingh region.
Brown and Brooks (2002) reviewed that 52% farmers in
Bangladesh used potassium per- while 40% used lime, 11% used salt as a disease
treatment A few farmers used other macb dlalnfa, biases tanvea fertilizer, alum
and water exchange.
Cbowdhury et a!. (2003) observed that the
antibiotic.. renamycin (óxytetracyciine) had positic effect again bacicrial
inci…. at a dose of 50 mg/Kg body wtfday applying for seven days and 8040%
fish were recovered under laboratory condition.
SuIts (2004) stated that commonly used chemicals in
aquaculture are lime, salt, urea, triple super potassium: pennanganate,
vitamins, antibiotics (mainly oxytetracycline and chkwotetracyciinc), rotenone,
phostoxin, swnithion, melathion and hormones. The author also stated that most
of the farmers used chemicals and antibiotics indiscriminately without knowing
their mode of action, doses and appropriate procedures of application.
Liu et a!. (2004) found that norfioxacin,
gentamicin, tobrarnycin, ciproifloxaci.n,, tetracycline, tctacfyiin, polyrnyxia
etc., have a significant bacteriostatic effect on Pseudomana sp.
Faruk et at. (2004) mentioned that the most
prevalent diseases were tail and fin rot, epizootic ulcerative syndrome,
nutritional disease, red spot and gill rot. Forty six percent farmers used
combination of time and potassium petmanganate, 22A% farmer used only lime and
10% farmer used lime and salt together in response to particular disease
Anderson et a!. (2005) reviewed that malachite green
is readily absorbed by fish tissue and is metabolically reduced to
leucomalachite green (LMG) which is lipohilic and can be stored in edible fish
tissues for extended periods of time.
Uddin and Kader (2006) found that about 40% of the
hatcheries in Bangladesh used the chloramphenicals, 25% hatcheries used
eryrhromycin. 20% used prefuran and 15% used oxytetracycline in brood stock
maintenance to prevent potential bacterial infection after eye stalk ablation.
Where 75% of the surveyed hatcheries used formaiin and 25% used malachite green
have been used as antifungal agents Eighty eight percent of the hatcheries used
treflan and 12% hatcheries used mal. bite green as antifungal agents in larval
Parimal et al (2006) tested on the sensitivity of
Aeromonas h. ophila and concluded that bacterium was susceptible to gentamicia,
ciprofioxacin, chioramphenicol and oxytetracycline but resistw to erythromycin,
nifiurantloin and peniiilin..
BPR. (2007) mentione that malachite green and
leucomalachite green were suspected of bciflg capable cfausi gene damage and
Faruk et al. (200.) stated that a. mge of :c:.k s
including antibiotics were used in aqc.dc fr . fl health : disc: tEeann..
JVzeolite, Octox, Green zeolite, Orgavit aqua, Fish vitaplua, AQ ow-G, Oxy
flow, Oxy mix and 02-insane were the
morn widely used aqua-dnigs and chemicals in
Bangladesh. Major active ingredients of these antibiotics were oxytetracychne,
suiphadiazine, chiorotetracycline, sulphamethoxazole. amoxicillin and
Rodgers and Furones (2009) ,bserved that antibiotics
are used in infestation of salmon by sea lice parasitic copepods. Infestations
have been treated by a variety of bath treatments including hydrogen peroxide,
pyrethrins, dlchiorvos, azamcthiphos and ivermectin administered through fish
feed, has also been used to deal with sea lice.
Daniel (2009) found that control of external
protozoa and monogenetic trematodes were done by applying formalin 15 to 25
mI/L. Oxytetracyclinc was used 50 mg/Kg/day for 5 days for enteric septicemia
furunculosis and 2.5 to 3.75 g/100 lb/day for 10 days for ulcer disease.
Bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia was controlled by applying oxytetracycline at
the rate of I g/ib medicated feed for 5 days. Sulfamerazinc also used for
controlled of Furuncutosis at the rate of 10 g/100 lb/day for up to 14 days.
Barde (2009) reviewed that the treatment of sumidon
and acephate causing pollution of Godavari basin of India. In addition lipase,
and protease enzyme activity in the tissues are severely affected by the
pesticides. Effects of these pesticides showed variation of enzyme activity in
digestive system of the crab.
Khan et al. (2011) mentioned that traditional
chemicals in fish health management included lime, salt, potassium
permanganate, sumithion, melathion, formalin and bleaching powder in Mymensingh
region. The authors also concluded that twenty eight pharmaceutical companies
were producing and marketing aqua-drugs and chemicals in Mymensingh region.
These include Polgurd plus, Deletix, Timsen, Vectisol. Virex, Renamycin,
Aquamycine and OxyDox-F.
Rasul et al. (2017). Studied that A range of chemicals
including antibiotics were found available in market and being used in the
aquaculture sector. Lime, salt, potassium permanganate, sumithion, melathion,
formalin, bleaching powder, methylene blue and malachite green were some commonly
used traditional chemicals in heath management. Of the new products JV Zeolite,
Mega Zeo Blue, Green zeolite, 5 Star Aqua, Aqua C, Aquavit, Bio-Ox, Oxy plus
and Bio care were most widely used compounds. About 18 trade names of
antibiotics were found and their major active ingredients were oxytetracycline,
chlorotetracycline, amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole, sulphadiazine, azithromysin.
Among the available antibiotics, Oxy-Dox-F and renamycin was used widely and
popularly by the freshwater aqua farmers in study area.