Professional Research and Communication Research Literature Review
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Agriculture is one of the key sectors for human sustainability and development. Food is the source of energy for human beings, but it is getting adulterated with different pesticides and the way of production. These days agriculture is decreasing day to day effecting the ecosystem finally and production capacity as well may be of any reason. This not only decrease the production capacity of the field but also damaging the entire ecosystem. To increase the production capacity, implementing the IOT in the field of agriculture makes high yield of production. Farmers should be able to tackle the tasks with IoT so that they can produce high quality and high rate of production.
Agriculture is a key sector in adopting the Internet of things technology. Adopting IoT made the agricultural industry sustainable to any condition and showing result in the fields of productivity, water conservation, continuous production, low pest rate and increasing the yield. These are the result of intense research happened and is happening in the field. Farmers need to get the information regarding the required aspects timely to make mindful decisions as to complete the required says (Mohanraj I*a, 2016). The application of Information and Communication Technology in the field of agriculture has provided different opportunities to widen the field by various aspects and domains in many regions. With the improvement in technology several hurdles are crossed by wireless technology, networking, mobile to overcome the usage of energy, cost consuming for equipment and power. The development of ICT has given a raise to create interest among investors in private sectors to divert their investments or to put new ones in the field of agriculture.
IoT in agriculture:
IoT has a lot to be applied in the field of agriculture. Technology is getting updated day by day and so no technology is fixed for a certain thing. In agriculture sensors will be used to calculate the required parameters. The data that is to be collected in this field are temperature, humidity, soil moisture which are the key parameters for a successful crop yielding. The data is collected by sensors and stored in servers. Drones are being used for watering the crop to decrease the water wastage and efficient water usage as it makes the soil absorb required amount of water. Farmers can change the amount of water to be sprinkled depending the data received from the servers. Using sprinklers also decrease the water wastage which can controlled directly from the server side by providing the logics required to the sprinklers and allow them to sprinkle over a certain range of area where the soil is dried, and water is required. Agriculture has become very precise with the expected output. Soil monitoring sensors are placed in the field at different places to maintain the complete record of the field and help the farmers to water the crop at time needed. Machines are used for routine operations to cut the yielded crop and make the most effective and efficient usage of the waste obtained from the crop.
Influences of IoT on agriculture:
? Crop monitoring: For monitoring of the crops and plants health sensors were used with the help of the data collected. For early monitoring of diseases and pests’ sensors were also be used. Based on the data stored calculations are performed and finalise the amount the water that is required for the crop at point of time. The water required by the crop will be analysed based on the Penman Monteith algorithm. This algorithm calculates the amount of water based on the “soil nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (NPK) values” (Nachankar, 2018), and system gives the amount t of fertilizers to be used to obtain optimum crop production. The system also generates the irrigation schedule at which time the water is to be allowed to the crop and the fertilizer to put. This can be implemented regional basis to area to maintain a smaller database and efficient progress in crop production.
? Food safety: The safety of the given should be given higher priority even though has low capacity. The spraying of pests should be controlled by intimating the farmers prior to the attack of the pest.
? Climate monitoring: For monitoring of temperature, light intensity ,soil moisture and humidity sensors were used. This data is transferred to the central system to send alerts to the farmers and systems to automatic supply of water, air and crop control by using drones, sprinklers etc.,
? Livestock farming monitoring: (Juntao Li, 2016) says that the farm animals are monitored with the help sensors to detect potential signs of disease. The data can then be analysed from the central system and information required to the farmers can be sent. The animals are attached with RFID tags to track the animal’s location and inform the farmers when required.
Some of the best applications of the IoT in agriculture (Ahmed Khattab, 2016)are:
Drone Deploy: It can be operated by any individual to analyse mapping images by using the devices like computer or smartphone. Many of the companies focuses on agricultural industry because this technology can help them to see the crop effected areas, estimate yields, and, they will store some of the data regarding crops for the comparison overtime.
Precision Agriculture: (Ahmed Khattab, 2016) says that these days due to the technological advances the remote sensor costs and advances in cloud technologies has been decreasing continuously and have made precision agriculture available for less price for many of the farmers. Precision agriculture provides the information for fungicides or pesticides to be applied at the right times, achieve efficient water consumption by watering the field with the required amount and knowing the time to spray a pesticide not only decreases the threat to the crop but also less harm to the environment when less amount is to be sprayed.
Water conservation and Irrigation: The technologies which were used in real time can monitor soil moisture, usage of water and manages costs of water. Therefore, it minimises waste and produce high quality crops, high productivity and high profits in precision farming. “Technology is an excellent Antidote to scarcity” says J.Mathew Pryor.(CEO of observant) in irrigation technology company.
Sensors on Crops and Farm Machinery: Different kind of sensors were connected to combine tractors and other different kind of equipment will be leads to new level of information for the farmers about their crops and soil. Flex president of industrial and emerging industries Doug Britt suggests that there will be an increasing role in efficient agriculture in smart farming technologies. The information gathered from sensors not only helps farmers but also for the all different kinds of agricultural businesses.
(Mohanraj I*a, 2016)proposes as software is to be designed according to the needs to calculate the temperature, soil moisture, humidity and to calculate the amount of water to be present in the soil, amount of fertilizer or pesticide to be applied. The data is collected from the hardware equipment deployed and are stored in the database deployed.
An open source electronics prototype called Energia MT is a platform used to change the version of wiring/Arduino IDE by embedding the C code for the Texas Instruments.
1.6.8, an Arduino programming environment is used for writing code in the Arduino programming language to instruct the Arduino.
An application for Android and iOS is accompanied with a Blynk Platform to control Arduino, Raspberry Pi and the likes over the Internet. This is a digital dashboard on which a graphical interface is built for any project .
(Mohanraj I*a, 2016)says that the main hardware requirement in the field of agriculture are sensors along with them computers are required for data calculations and predictions.
To implement the monitoring modules “TI CC3200 Launchpad and Arduino UNO board” (Mohanraj I*a, 2016) along with that Ethernet shield is also used. Data from the fields is collected using the above mentioned peripherals and other sensors.
• “DHT11 Temperature and Humidity Sensor.”
• “Soil Moisture Senor (KG003) – Output is high when there is deficit in soil moisture (i.e. the field is dry), or output is low. Analog interfacing can be used for accurate output.”
• “Ball float liquid level Sensor-Output is obtained according to ball raise or from the liquid level.”
• “Magnetic Float Sensor for water level indicator-Level of the liquid in the tank can be easily detected by using a device named float sensor.. Float sensor is an electromagnetic ON/OFF switch.”
• “BH1750 Module Digital Light Intensity Sensor / LDR resistor”.
• “A Four Channel Relay Board (5V) for switching AC/DC is used to trigger an AC motor (220V) to operate the valves.”
(M. Sto?es, 2016)• L293D H Bridge (Wide Supply-Voltage Range: 4.5 V to 36 V) which is a typical motor driver that allows DC motor to drive on either direction.
Types of Research conducted:
(Nachankar, 2018) had proposed a system that is confined to only five crops named wheat, cotton, groundnut, sorghum and rice as of now for proper water management in the field, fertilizer recommendation and generating an irrigation schedule. The proposed system follows a sequence of steps in which the first is opting the crop and its condition and the surface area of the crop covered. The climatic conditions are also displayed along with the inputs above mentioned. The water that is required by the crop is “calculated based on the Penman Monteith Algorithm.” (Nachankar, 2018)
(Ray, 2017)had said that the invention of Internet of Things (IoT) has given a new direction of innovative research in agricultural domain. As IoT is in the initial stage, it has to go through rigorous experiments to make it apply widely in a lot of applications in the field of agriculture. Different kind of IoT applications and also the particular challenges and issues based on IoT deployment for better farming were reviewed by me in this paper. To manage the technologies involved with IoT are analysed comprehensively. Devices and Sensors are investigated to provide more efficient services achieving towards smart agriculture. Many organisations and individuals were performed different kind of case studies to popularise the existing solutions based on IOT.
According to (M. Sto?es, 2016) Devices that are currently designated as IoT are implemented in agriculture for many years now. Many of the devices were integrated into machinery of the agriculture. Major development in this area is expected soon, because of many projects that focus on open solutions that would eliminate compatibility issues of proprietary devices.
Future in farming is collecting and analysing the big data to maximize the efficiency. The efficiency has to be improved because the farmers get more connected to the IoT. To analyse the huge data that will be collected in future requires more data analysts and technicians for problems involving hardware and other software. The scope for is agriculture is very high as it involves various applications. The farmers should be able to explain their need to the analysts and acquire the data from them. The data analysts are to be trained that they can design their own principle to calculate the data required by the farmers in more efficient way. More databases are to be established to serve the farmers worldwide with regional data so that they can acquire knowledge from the studies.
The advent of IoT is always a big boon for every aspect and more for agriculture as is still adopting the technology. Even though it is in the initial stages, it is showing a great impact on agriculture with the implementing projects in various fields. Researches have always given importance in implementation in other fields in agriculture by analysing the hardware and software aspects involved. Considering the researches conducted by (Ahmed Khattab, 2016) (Juntao Li, 2016) (M. Sto?es, 2016) (Mohanraj I*a, 2016) (Nachankar, 2018) (Ray, 2017) shows the intense research done on IoT in Agriculture exposing the different aspects considered. The study has identified a lot of research by different researchers in IoT in agriculture but choosing articles is difficult because of the vast subject. In near future IoT in agriculture will surly improve the standards of agriculture and paves a bright path.
Ray, P. (2017). Internet of things for smart agriculture: Technologies, practices and future direction. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments, online 9(4), pp.395-420. Available at: https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-ambient-intelligence-and-smart-environments/ais440.
Mohanraj, I., Ashokumar, K. and Naren, J. (2016). Field Monitoring and Automation Using IOT in Agriculture Domain. Procedia Computer Science, online 93, pp.931-939. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877050916315216 Accessed 24 Sep. 2018.
khattab, A., Abdelgawad, A. and Yelmarthi, k. (2018). Design and Implementation of a cloud based IOT scheme for precision agriculture. IEEE. online Available at: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/7847850/?part=1 Accessed 24 Sep. 2018.
G.Somani, M. (2018). Iot in Agriculture. IRJNET, online 5(4). Available at: https://www.irjet.net/archives/V5/i4/IRJET-V5I4131.pdf Accessed 24 Sep. 2018.
Quora. (2018). Best applications of IOT in agriculture. online Available at: https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-best-applications-of-the-IoT-in-agriculture# Accessed 21 Sep. 2018.
Li, J. and Gu, W. (2018). Research on IOT Technology Applied to Intelligent Agriculture. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Automatic Control pp 1217-1224. online Springer link. Available at: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-48768-6_136 Accessed 24 Sep. 2018.
Sto?es, M., Van?k, J., Masner, J. and Pavlík, J. (2018). Internet of Things (IoT) in Agriculture – Selected Aspects. online Agris. Available at: http://online.agris.cz/archive/2016/1/8 Accessed 24 Sep. 2018.