As positive or negative feelings effect individual mental and emotional state the same way positive thoughts, emotions and different habitual behaviour which were combine and make a trait which are basically aspect of individual personality and are stable over time, not consistent over situation, differ from individual to individual and influence or effect individual behaviour. Individual pattern of thinking, behaving and feeling are basic elements in designing their personality and all of them contributing in personality traits. Traits are either be positive or negative. Depending on individual mental and emotional state when they look over any adverse situation in a positive, optimistic way and show integrity, honesty, loyalty, humility and forgiveness etc, show positive personality traits and produce good effects on person psychological state. Psychological wellbeing is when you are able to manage your feelings, and when you feel about yourself and the quality of your relationship. While on other hand, negative personality traits are when there’s is a feelings of selfishness, cynicism, pessimism and shyness which effect negatively on person’s psychological state.
There are some individual who loose temper in face of adversity while some have the ability to face that unpleasant or adverse situation and continue in achieving their life goals transcending grief and pain by perceiving difficult time as a temporary state of affairs (Brad Wasters 2013) which strengthen their inner self and also have a strong believe in one’s own self which make them capable and competent which is a positive personality trait which is called resiliency. There are Numerous biological, psychological and environmental risk factors which effect individual mental health such as when there’s arise feelings of ”me” and did not account others feelings and consider your own self as superior to others effect negatively on human psychological state. These traits vary from generation to generation in same way as they vary from person to person. The changes occur in their traits are attributed to environmental or biological factors.
Generation is a category of individuals born around the same time. In kinship terminology, it is a structural term designating the parent child relation ship. In biological sciences the term generation represents procreation, reproduction or biogenesis. Generation is also termed as cohort, it also refers to the ‘people within a delineated population who experience the same significant events with in a given period of time (Pilcher and Jane 1994). Through out their life time individuals in this ”birth cohort” reveal similar values, characteristics and partiality. There are substantial distinctness between the generations, every generation has consist a particular set of characteristics which make them unique from the rest of generations. Serious analysis regarding to the different generations began in 19th century. This analysis emerge from the idea of youthful rebellion against traditional social orders and an increasing recognition of the possibility of enduring social change. According to some analyst, generation is one of the foundational social sets in a society, while other stated that its significance as being conceal by other factors including race, education, gender and class among others. The word generate derived from the Latin generare, meaning ”to beget” (Generate/ Define Generate at Dictionary.com 1995).
Individuals behaviour are shaped through lived experiences as a result of changes in the environment (social change) (Karl Mannheim 1952). Howe and Strauss have written that similarities exist in people of a specific generation is attributed to social change. On the premise of existing different attributes generations are cleave into ten different classes (Michael T. Robinson 1997-2018) which are;
The Lost Generation (1883-1915)
The Interbellum Generation (1901-1913)
The greatest Generation (1910-1924)
The Silent Generation (1925-1945)
The baby Boomers (1946-1964)
Generation X (Baby Bust) (1965-1979)
Xennials (1975-1985)
Generation Y or Millennials (1980-1994)
Generation Z (1995-2012)
Generation Alpha (2013-2025)
Every generation show a unique pattern of personality traits which make them unique from the other generation. These personality traits are some how positive and some are negative depending on different age groups. These generations different from one another on the basis of different values, beliefs and attitudes.
Adaptive and some times unusual, human development in adverse environment is remarkable (Rachael E. Day 2015). Masten 2011 defines resilience as ”the capacity of a dynamic system to withstand or recover from significant threats to its stability, viability or development”. Resilience is build up of two dimensions. First, because of the prior established maladjustment there must be the presence of notable adversity with elevated odds. Second, there’s necessary to be a constructive adaptations that considerably effective than anticipate (Masten 2001). The study of resilience has established an affluent understanding of how people overcome unpleasant or difficult situation (Cicchetti 2013; Masten and Wright 2009).
Millennials grown in a time of prosperity, during time of recession they went to school and faced the true nature of ”underemployment” and ”unemployment” as a college graduates. Under 25 years of age more than half of college graduates in 2012 are unemployed, millennials were brought up in a time where job markets more inclusive and college are more accessible. After the recession, less educated job progressed rapidly than those for college graduates. And as a particular industry recess increased in demand, underemployment became an additional standard. This lay a juncture of chance for Millennials. Culturally, Millennials has watched a paradigm shift in a method they view their upcoming (future) career opportunities and are embarrassing entrepreneurship as their paean. 80% of this generation suppose themselves leaders and full focused on establishing start-up businesses (companies), think about different kinds of innovations. Almost half of the individuals belonging to this generation would run their own companies (businesses) rather than doing job in somewhere where they do not enjoy or for which they are overqualified. Almost 60% of Millennials are eager to sacrifice short-term consolation (i.e, spending habits, savings, life styles, creature comforts and relationships) for future triumph (Brooks Anderson 2015).
From 9/11 to Katrina to Sandy Hook, Millennials has not had it effortless. In ”Managing Millennials For Dummies”, the author states ”In reaction to entirely this bloodshed and uncertainty, Millennials, in spite the archetypal rhetoric, become more resilient….. They are determined to give their best in the face of change, move with the hard situation the best they can”. Hardships and tragedies are not uncommon or stranger to older or previous generation, the influx of social media has alter how this influence individuals on a daily basis (Katie Williamson 2017). Older generation were some how disconnect from the news world and entirely atrocities flooding the media but for Millennials news were always in their pocket. Due to increase of violence and hardships, Millennials become more resilient, there are countless ways this plays out in a certain way (Katie Willamson 2017);
• ”You Only Live Once” is the maxim of Millennials. They want to move on if they are unsatisfied or unhappy in any job and make the most of all probable moment. With all of the tragic events they did not want to squander the time because they think that life is too short.
• Millennials crave to have a meaning beyond their work and strive to make change in the world.
• They are highly innovative and fast to attempt something new. Millennials become more resilient in the face of failure, overthrow or a single mistake does not leave them vanquished.
Generation Z was recently named ”the loneliest generation”(Elena Sheppard 2018). This generation has been reported as ”Millennials on steroids”, prudent about the future and technology dependent (NPD Group, Inc 2018). Gen Z came of age after September 11 2001 events, they haven’t any memory of the events the US was not at combat with terrorism. By product of growing up through considerable recession, witnessing or observing housing foreclosures, Gen Z cohort experiencing uncertainty about the future is expound as having unsettled or aimless feelings (NPD Group, Inc 2018) . Gen Z expert (and Gen Zer himself) Cannor Blakely described Gen Z as being ”less confident in the American dream”.
Gen Z, the most electronically connected generation which are born totally in a digital world. The digital world enabled them to engage, collaborate and to connected with large amount of information which ease their life’s. It is the foremost truly global generation with unbound interest and boulevard for learning. They have been grown in a hyper-connected, high-technology, on demand and impatient culture. Experts expect Gen Z mantra to be ‘good things come to those who act’. This entrepreneurial-minded, self directed, highly educated and uber resourceful generation will cease at nothing to make their mark on the globe (Jenkins, R. and Barely 2016). This generation spent lot of time on internet and like to be in touch in short bursts of information and are able to access information very rapidly and are highly diverse than other generations and are appear to be more realistic, loyal and career minded and want that they don’t want to let others down (Debbie C. Hampton and Yolanda Keys 2016). ”Gen Z will have a powerful work ethic same to Baby Boomers and the resiliency and responsibility of their Xennials parents, and they may be even technological savvier than the Millennials (Seemiller and Grace 2016).
Like a grotesque disguise reflected in a water or pool, narcissism has doubled faces, no one of them are attractive. Narcissism seeing themselves as a superior who are entitled a unique treatment, also have distended sense of self-worth (Nick Haslam 2017). When they are ignored or their unique gifts are challenged they react in highly aggressive manner. Resiliency is highly connected with the level of self-esteem, high self-esteem leads to resiliency because self-esteem means when you have full confidence in one’s own abilities and worth and is also called self-respect and self worth. While on other hand, however there is an evidence that narcissist tends to have high self esteem than normal or average level, but that these levels are to some extent fragile and defensive (Nick Haslam 2017).
According to Jean Professor Twenge, growing narcissism correlates with materialism, focus on fame and image and great focused on money. There are probably a number of drives which highly participate to increase level of narcissism which are; internet, easy bank loans and celebrity culture.
In recorded history people born between 1980s-2000s are more narcissistic, self-absorbed and individualistic generation (Stephaine Papps 2016). According to the National Institute of Health; in 2009 58% of college students score higher on narcissism scale as compared to the college students in 1982. A recent study showed that 40% of Millennials believe that regardless to their performance they should be promoted (Joel Stein 2016). They are fame obsessed; many of college students prefer job of personal assistance to a famous celebrity to be a Senator, in 2007 a survey many of them pick up assistant job over CEO of a major cooperation (Joel Stein 2016). Every country Millennials are varied but due to social media, globalization, speed of change and transferring of Western culture worldwide are indistinguishable to one another then the previous generations with in their country. Even in China, where ancestry history are more essential than any person, the urbanization, internet and the one-child policy have designed a generation as self-involved and overconfident as the Western one. These are not just problems of rich-kids but poor Millennials have even higher rates of materialism, technology addiction and narcissism (Joel Stein 2016).
Personality expert Brent Roberts and his colleagues by several cohorts studies on three American Universities in three different eras; 1990s, 2000s and early 2000s. Brent and his colleagues sliced the findings and found that narcissism has been declining among young people since 90s. Which conclude that narcissism were found higher in 80s and start 90s.
Gen Z the most connected generation with the social media, smart phones and internet. Members of this generation are autochthon with ”social technology rooted deep in all aspect of their life’s” (report on CBS news). Growing up with different social media apps such as twitter, instagram, facebook and snapchat they became up to date of their personal brand, many of them give greater value on the virtual world above the real one (Daniel Riseman 2017). Professor Jean Twenge of San Diego State University conducted study in 2014 that 18 and 19 years olds are more narcissistic than their teens belonging to previous generations. Twenge along with their colleagues documented their findings ” Narcissist are missing that piece about caring, valuing and their relationships, so they tend to lack of empathy-they have poor relationship skills” (Daniel Riseman 2017).
Resilience
Resilience word derive from Latin wordresilire which means to bounce back.
Resilience is define as ‘malleablity in response to changing situational demands and the ability to bounce back from negative emotional experience.(J.H.Block and Block, 1980; Block andKremen,1996;lazarus,1993). Resilience is the ability to cope with changing environment and dangers.(Lee and cranford ,2008).
Resilient people can deal with every situation successfully and can handle every trouble. Individuals that have resilient trait experience positive emotions in every stressful events and situation .This show their abilityto bounce back successfully instead of tragedy. This means that resilient people may understandthe advantages that are related to positive emotions, that they canuse later in stressful and in bad situation. (Tuagade and Fredrickson, 2002; 2004). Resilient people not only build positive emotions in themselves but they are also able to build positive emotions in other people that are close to them through which the resilient people make a helpful social environment that help the individuals in coping procedures. (Demos, 1989; Kampar, 1999; Werner and smith, 1992).
Resilience is also describe as ‘an individual ability to quickly recover in risky situations (Leopold and Grave, 2009).
Researchers have recently administered concept-based analysis to demonstrate the cause, outcomes and the integral features of resilience. (Earvolino-ramirez, 2007; Windle, 2011). The central cause of resilience is to consider the mishap and the main effect is to be considered the positive adaptation of the stressful situation. An important consideration that arises from the study related to the conceptualization of resilience is either a trait or a process (windle 2011). When resilience is visualize as a trait, it has been indicate that it shows the bunch of attributes that permit a person to adjust to the situation that happens to them (Connor and Davidson, 2003).
The psychological resilience has been perceived as a personality trait. It is considered that resilience trait is changeable which means that resilience trait is change with time.
Garmezy introduce some of factors that affect resilience are these;
1: individual factors; a child’s dispositional characteristics e.g.the activity level of a child , their cognitions, and how they face new situation and how they give positive response to other people in negative situation.
2: familial factors; family conditions and warmness, the presence of parents or the presence of other members of the family that the child’s parents concern for the wellbeing of the child.
3: support factors; an external support outside of the family that provide support to the individual e.g. a teacher (garmezy at ell 1984).
Resilient people have the tendency to show positive attitude and behavior in negative situation. When bad things happen to them they deal with those things in a very good manner and they show positive behavior in that situation. They know how to deal with stressful and depressed conditions. They have the capacity to give positive response to environment and to other people in negative emotional situation. They can easily adjust in every new situation and easily adjust in new environment.
Xennial
Xennial ; the term xennial introduce by sarahstankorb and jedoelbaum in 2014. According to them xennial are the generation who are born between 1977 and 1983. Xennial also known as Oregon trail generation. Xennial also termed as micro generation and in between generation. The inbetween generation name is given because that this generation is between millennial and IGen Z.
A professor of sociology from the university of Melbourne, Dan woodman did a research on Xennial. According to woodman the uniqueness center of the Xennial is technology. Xennial spent their childhood without using computer but in adulthood they use the computer and internet to adopt new technology. They have the ability to easily adapt new technologies.
Xennial are different from the generations before and after them because of the technology in which they had to adjust in early adulthood. They have a digital adulthood.
Xennial are consider a little bit optimistic and too confident. When they say something that matters to them they follow them and prove them (Kim Mackenzie). Xennial and millennial feel pride on their work and on their doings. They also feel themselves responsible for their work. They love their work and do their work sincerely (Carrie skowronski).
Xennial and millennial can recall their life and the events that happen to them very clearly without using any medium such as internet, books, dairy etc. They are the early adopters of the technology like internet and social media that we use now a day. They can retrieve everything. Their memory and retrieval process is better than other generations. Because of their memory they are considered as multi taskers. They can perform a task easily and also easily perform multi tasks at a time. They are consider exceptional.
Narcissism
The word narcissism comes from Greek mythology, where a young man fell in love with his own image reflecting in water (Lynne Malcolm 2014). The concept of narcissism was first introduced by Frued in his psychoanalytic theory. It is also consider as cultural and social problem. When level of narcissism increase and it become a part of person’s personality it will convert to Narcissistic Personality Disorder which is classified in DSM. According to DSM symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder are; grandiosity, excessive need for admiration, exaggerated sense of self importance and lack of empathy (Kendra Cherry 2018). Narcissistic individual face troubles in maintaining their inter personal relations. They highly avoided meaningful emotional interactions with others because they have extremely frangible sense of self worth and does not permit him or her to any menace of criticism. Narcissist are characterised by six areas of pathological functioning and this six areas are best illustrate in four narcissistic characteristics (Carson and Butcher 1992) which is follows;
1. They have a sense of inferiority, which underlies engrossment with imagination of greater achievement.
2. They are impotent to trust and rely on others and thus build countless, shallow relations to extricate tributes from others.
3. They always have a shifting morality- always prepared to transfer values to acquire favour.
4. They are not able to remain in love and have impaired capacity for a committed relations.
Theories on Narcissism