Ans 1

Ans 1)

Introduction:
The “cloud” is being used as a metaphor for the Internet; it means a virtual space and capacity which is sharing information by using internet connectivity through satellite over the globe. And hence, cloud symbols are now often used to portray the Internet on diagrams.
Cloud computing, refers to sharing resources, software, and information via a network, i.e. through internet connectivity. The information is stored on physical servers which are maintained and controlled by a cloud computing provider, such as Google in reference to Google Drive. As a user, one can access stored information on the cloud via the Internet.
By using cloud storage, one doesn’t need to store information on any hard disk. Instead, anyone can access the cloud data from any location and can download it to any device available for it, including laptop, tablets and smartphones. Also file editing in Microsoft word and excel files can be done in parallel
There are different types of cloud computing services available to suit different needs. While some cater to individual users who want photos, documents, and videos, others to store and are destined for companies that need extensive platforms to develop IT applications and store huge organisation data which can be accessible worldwide any time anywhere if anybody needs that data to access for reference and work.
Similarly for hospitality industry also its import and safe also to save all data and reports everything on cloud so that hassle of getting delayed and miss placed is not there .also easily accessible all around the world for reference and quick use of the same to get patient checked and all this system leads to time saving and comfort of patient and hospital management too
Concept and application:

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Benefits of cloud computing
Cloud computing is a big shift from the traditional way businesses think about IT resources.

1. Cost
It basically eliminates the extra cost of buying hardware’s, software and setting up cost also the place required and safety issues like of theft.

2. Speed
With just a few clicks all data can be uploaded and can be retrieve so that it saves time and authenticity of data .hence making overall system more flexible.

3. Global scale
The benefits of cloud computing services include the ability to scale elastically i.e. power, storage, bandwidth—right when it’s needed and from the right geographic location.

4. Productivity
Cloud computing removes the need of racking and stacking so IT teams can spend time on achieving more important business goals.

5. Performance
The biggest cloud computing services run on a worldwide network of secure datacentres, which are regularly upgraded to the latest generation of fast and efficient computing hardware. .

6. Reliability
Cloud computing makes data backup, disaster recovery and business continuity easier and less expensive, because data can be mirrored at multiple redundant sites on the cloud provider’s network.

Advantages
1. Worldwide Access. Cloud computing increases mobility, as you can access your documents from any device in any part of the world. For businesses, this means that employees can work from home or on business trips, without having to carry around documents. This increases productivity and allows faster exchange of information. Employees can also work on the same document without having to be in the same place.
2. More Storage. In Earlier times memory was limited and if space is not left then USB was needed. Cloud computing thus supplement with extra storage,
3. Easy Set-Up. Immediate starting of resources, software and information which are saved on cloud .hence can set up a cloud computing service in a matter of minutes.
4. Automatic Updates. This helps in saving lot of time in updating and downloading the applications and data saved on cloud, which is available hands on to use.
5. Reduced Cost. Cloud computing is often inexpensive but in long run n data security pointwise it is safe and with minimal cost. There are numerous cloud computing applications available for free, such as Dropbox, and increasing storage size and memory is affordable.

Major challenges face can be:
1. Security. On cloud, basically data is being stored at third party. Everyone from all over the world is using the same server and may cause security. Confidentiality of data may get harm due to virus attack and malware. For example, some servers like Google Cloud Connect come with customizable spam filtering, email encryption, and SSL enforcement for secure HTTPS access, among other security measures.

2. Privacy. Cloud computing comes with the risk that unauthorized users might access your information. For this cloud computing services offer password protection and operate on secure servers with data encryption technology.

3. Loss of Control. Cloud computing entities control the users. This includes not only how much you have to pay to use the service, but also what information you can store, where you can access it from, and many other factors. You depend on the provider for updates and backups. If for some reason, their server ceases to operate, you run the risk of losing all your information.

4. Internet Reliance. If the area doesn’t have Internet access, then wont be able to open any of the documents stored in the cloud.

Potential Benefits of Cloud Migration and Conclusion:
Many problems can be resolved on moving to cloud.
Your application is experiencing increased traffic and it’s becoming difficult to scale resources on the fly to meet the increasing demand.
To reduce operational costs, and parallely increasing the effectiveness of IT processes.
For fast application implementation and deployment.
Your clients want to expand their business geographically, but you suspect that setting up a multi-region infrastructure – with all the associated maintenance, time, human, and error control effort – is going to be a challenge.
It’s becoming more difficult and expensive to keep up with your growing storage needs.
Cloud computing environments allow remotely located employees to access applications and work via the Internet.
to establish a disaster recovery system but setting it up for an entire data center could double the cost. It would also require a complex disaster recovery plan. Cloud disaster recovery systems can be implemented much more quickly and give you much better control over your resources.
Tracking and upgrading underlying server software is a time consuming, yet essential process that requires periodic and sometimes immediate upgrades. In some cases, a cloud provider will take care of this automatically. Some cloud computing models similarly handle many administration tasks such as database backup, software upgrades, and periodic maintenance.
Capex to Opex: Cloud computing shifts IT expenditure to a pay-as-you-go model, which is an attractive benefit, especially for startups

Ans 2)

INTRODUCTION:
Supply chain management systems are integrated partnerships between all linkups in the flow of goods and services to the customer.
Basically it is implemented for the purpose of improving quality, reducing costs and achieving competitive advantage .In today’s world lean manufacturing and specialization compels companies to rely on one another for valuable productive activities mutually .
All supply chain activities like planning, sourcing, producing, delivering and providing returns, are managed jointly within an integrated supply chain to ensure the maximum use of shared and available resources.

Different components in supply chain management are:

A well-planned supply chain management system can be broken into three components:
1) Strategic component: The strategic component includes decisions related to the number, size and location of warehouses and the selection of supply chain partners. Product management and cooperative marketing strategies are also considered at this level. Technological infrastructure design and implementation is a large part of the strategic component and must be collaboratively carried out by all member companies
2) Tactical component: it basically encompasses the execution of strategic initiatives and start-ups. Partnership details are decoded at this level. Decisions related to inventory quality, quantity and location is taken, and benchmarks are to be created to analyse supply chain effectiveness and economic viability.
3) Operational component: Operational activities are activities which confirms and ensure that supply chain activities run smoothly and efficiently. Shipping and receiving activities, as well as purchase orders and demand forecasting, are a part of the operational component.

Unilever: Unilever is the third largest consumer goods company which have great chain of food beverages, personal hygiene care products. As the unilever began its fiver year growth strategy in year 2000 which target for complete restructuring of supply management. They focused on organization, global procurement processes, supply chain executives, supplier involvement, and technology. As a result, they achieved $14.24 billion in savings in 2003 from its initiatives, and Unilever became a leader in the consumer packaged industry for technology adoption.
Some of the positive points of IT enabled services (information system) are:?
IT is comparatively less capital intensive
It is environmental friendly and clean
It is not location specific and can be undertaken from anywhere.?
It does not require expensive infrastructure facilities
Various IT solutions
Communications,
Electronic mail (e-mail),
Electronic data interchange (EDI) ,
Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
Results of IT solution it is observed that the Indian retail industry is booming and internet is being utilized in automobile industry in a big way. Internet trying to interlink suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers to have better control on inventory at various levels of supply chain including better utilization of manpower and also keeping track of inventory.
But it is fact that internet has influenced the whole business strategy whether it is policy or it is physical implementation. Some of the areas where’s greater effect felt

Ans 1

Ans 1:
Introduction:
Demand forecasting is about making estimations of future customer demand using previous old data and other information. Proper demand forecasting gives managers of organisation information about their decisions for pricing, business growth and strategies for market growth. Without demand forecasting, Organisation may take poor decisions about their products and target markets.
Organization faces several internal and external risks, such as high competition, failure of technology, labour unrest, inflation, recession, and change in government laws.
Therefore, risk and uncertainty are the reason to make business decisions of an organization.
An organization can lessen the adverse effects of risks by determining the demand or sales prospects for its products and services in future. Demand forecasting is a systematic process that involves anticipating the demand for the product and services of an organization in future under a set of uncontrollable and competitive forces.
Demand forecasting helps in taking various business decisions, such as planning the production process, purchasing raw materials, managing funds, and deciding the price of the product. An organization can forecast demand by making own estimates called guess estimate or taking the help of specialized consultants or market research agencies.
Demand Forecasting helps in reducing risk and makes important decision.
The significance of demand forecasting is shown in the following points:

i. Fulfilling objectives:
With certain predicated objectives every business unit starts. Demand forecasting helps in fulfilling these objectives and setting up the goals.
ii. Preparing the budget:
By estimating cost and expected revenues, budgeting becomes more accurate and crucial.

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iii. Stabilizing employment and production:
Helps an organization to control its production and recruitment activities. Also helps in avoiding the wastage of the resources of an organization.
iv. Expanding organizations:
Implies that demand forecasting helps in deciding about the expansion of the business of the organization. If the demand for products is more then the organization may expand further. But, if the demand for products is expected to fall or reduce, the organization may cut down the investment in the business.
v. Taking Management Decisions:
Helps in making critical decisions, like determining the requirement of raw material, plant capacity and availability of labour and capital.
vi. Evaluating Performance:
Helps in making corrections related to quality etc.If demand reduces of the product but by analysing and taking corrective action improves the level of demand by enhancing the quality of product.
vii. Helping Government:
Enables the government to coordinate import and export activities and plan international trade.

Qualitative methods:
1) Methods which are dependent and follows surveys, interviews and opinions.
2) This method includes the consumer survey Delphi method market surveys etc. of demand forecasting.
3) This method follows the opinion of different groups of people who are linked with the product to predict the future demand.
4) For short term forecasting prediction qualitative methods are preferred.
Qualitative forecasting techniques include interpretation of data combined with the professional expertise during the job experience.
You might forecast demand by holding focus groups of customers to discuss and gauge their reactions to several new product features your company is considering.

Qualitative techniques uses information from sources like:

Market Research: Conducted through surveys.
Historical Analogy: The sale of new product or service is compared with the sales of a previous similar product or service.
Sales patterns It is assumed that the sales patterns associated with the previous product or service can be transferred to the new product or service
Expert Opinion:
The opinions of experts in the particular area are sought. Experts give their views on current trends & likely future developments that may have an impact on the general economy or a specific industry or market.
Focus Groups: Consists of panels of customers who are asked to provide their opinions about a product or service.
Delphi Method: “A qualitative forecasting technique where the opinions of experts are combined in a series of iterations (repetitions). The results of each iteration are used to develop the next, so that convergence of the experts’ opinions is obtained”. This method is based on the knowledge & judgment of a small group of experts.
Panel Consensus: A group of people provides opinion about the future & a facilitator brings the group to a consensus.

Quantitative Methods:
1) Statistical tools are used to predict the future demand of the product
2) Time series analysis, barometric method and regression method fall under the quantitative methods of demand forecasting.

3) The quantitative methods emphasizes on the use of past sales data along with various factors influencing the demand to estimate the future demand of the product.

4) Long-term forecasts are usually undertaken through the quantitative methods of demand forecasting.
Quantitative forecasts often use historical data, such as previous sales and revenue figures, production and financial reports and website traffic statistics. Looking at seasonal sales data, for example, can help you plan next year’s production and labour needs based on last year’s monthly or quarterly figures.
Quantitative Methods:
Based on historical information that is usually available within the company. Various techniques are:

Trend Analysis:
A method for forecasting sales data when a definite upward or downward pattern exists. Model includes double exponential smoothing, regression & triple smoothing.

Seasonal Adjustment :
Seasonal models take into account the variation of demand from season to season. Adjustments can be made to a baseline forecast to predict the impact of a seasonal demand.

Decomposition:
“A method of forecasting where time series data are separated into up to three components: trend, seasonal, and cyclical; where trend includes the general horizontal upward or downward movement over time; seasonal includes a recurring demand pattern such as day of the week, weekly, monthly, or quarterly; and cyclical includes any repeating, non-seasonal pattern. A fourth component is random, that is, data with no pattern. The new forecast is made by projecting the patterns individually determined and then combining them”.

Graphical Methods :
Plotting information in a graphical form. It is relatively easy to convert a spreadsheet into a graph that conveys the information in a visual manner. Trends & patterns are easier to spot & extrapolation of previous demand can be used to predict future demands.
Econometric Modeling :
A set of equations intended to be used simultaneously to capture the way in which dependent and independent variables are interrelated.

Life Cycle Modeling :
“A quantitative forecasting technique based on applying past patterns of demand data covering introduction, growth, maturity, saturation, and decline of similar products to a new product family”.

The objectives of demand forecasting are divided into short and long-term objectives, which are shown in Figure-1:

The objectives of demand forecasting (as shown in Figure-1) are discussed as follows:

i. Short-term Objectives:

a. Formulating production policy:
Helps in covering the gap between the demand and supply of the product. The demand forecasting helps in estimating the requirement of raw material in future, so that the regular supply of raw material can be maintained. It further helps in maximum utilization of resources as operations are planned according to forecasts. Similarly, human resource requirements are easily met with the help of demand forecasting.
b. Formulating price policy:
Refers to one of the most important objectives of demand forecasting. An organization sets prices of its products according to their demand. For example, if an economy enters into depression or recession phase, the demand for products falls. In such a case, the organization sets low prices of its products.
c. Controlling sales:
Helps in setting sales targets, which act as a basis for evaluating sales performance. An organization make demand forecasts for different regions and fix sales targets for each region accordingly.
d. Arranging finance:
Implies that the financial requirements of the enterprise are estimated with the help of demand forecasting. This helps in ensuring proper liquidity within the organization.
ii. Long-term Objectives:

a. Deciding the production capacity:
Implies that with the help of demand forecasting, an organization can determine the size of the plant required for production. The size of the plant should conform to the sales requirement of the organization.
b. Planning long-term activities:
Implies that demand forecasting helps in planning for long term. For example, if the forecasted demand for the organization’s products is high, then it may plan to invest in various expansion and development projects in the long term.
Factors Influencing Demand Forecasting:
Demand forecasting is a proactive process that helps in determining what products are needed where, when, and in what quantities. There are a number of factors that affect demand forecasting.
i. Types of Goods:
Affect the demand forecasting process to a larger extent. Goods can be producer’s goods, consumer goods, or services. Apart from this, goods can be established and new goods. Established goods are those goods which already exist in the market, whereas new goods are those which are yet to be introduced in the market.
Information regarding the demand, substitutes and level of competition of goods is known only in case of established goods. On the other hand, it is difficult to forecast demand for the new goods. Therefore, forecasting is different for different types of goods.
ii. Competition Level:
Influence the process of demand forecasting. In a highly competitive market, demand for products also depend on the number of competitors existing in the market. Moreover, in a highly competitive market, there is always a risk of new entrants. In such a case, demand forecasting becomes difficult and challenging.
iii. Price of Goods:

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