a

a) Ethos
Ethos is a term with Greek origins and it refers to the morals, values and beliefs of the school. Ethos is also one of the three rhetorical appeals identified by Aristotle. The other two appeals are logos (logic) and pathos (emotion). In persuasive writing, ethos is all about the credibility as the author. Ethos comes in two forms: there is extrinsic ethos, the authority, education and experience of a speaker or author, and intrinsic ethos, the way the speaker goes about the act of persuading, meaning that he or she is skilled or unskilled with language and terminology. In the educational settings, ethos is affected by the type of school and its philosophy e.g. religious ethos. A school’s ethos is usually based on the philosophy or atmosphere in the school, providing a safe and respected environment that facilitates successful learning (School ethos, 2014). Ethos is also about the sense of honesty or morality the school projects. When the entire school has a common goal and a common ethos, each member of staff, pupils and parents, have a confidence in the school, because they know their opinion is valued, and they live in the ethos and believe collectively in the school’s direction.
Of course, the leadership function is crucial in this process. Head Teachers must believe in, and sell, the school’s ethos to their staff, the local community and parents. When a school achieves a strong ethos, it is far more important than data. It means that the school and its team really care about their children.
b) Mission
A mission statement, or simply a mission, is a public declaration that schools or other educational settings use to describe their founding purpose and major commitments, what they do and why they do it. The school’s mission is its overall intention; it is the modern equivalent of a “motto”. The mission is what the school is intended to achieve on the academic and physical level and it is the summary of goals set forth by the educational institution. It is based on the school’s distinctive beliefs and includes concepts about the environment, services offered and parental involvement. It is specific to the organisation and it focuses on a common purpose. Therefore, a mission statement can describe a school’s day-to-day operational objectives, its instructional values, or its commitments to its students and community. A vision statement, or simply a vision, is a public declaration that schools or other educational settings use to describe their goals for the future, what they hope to achieve if they successfully fulfill their purposes or their mission. For example, a vision statement may describe the school’s highiest ideals, its core structural values, its long-term objectives, or what it hopes for its pupils’ learning and achievements.
The terms “mission statement” and “vision statement” are often used interchangeably. While some educators and schools may define the two terms, or blur the lines that have separated them, there is a general agreement in the education community on the major distinctions between a “mission” and a “vision”. A vision statement expresses the expected future reality, while a mission statement declares the practical commitments and actions that the school believes are needed to achieve its vision. While the vision statement describes the school’s end goal, the mission statement describes its broad academic and operational commitments to its students and community.
The development of a mission statement is a challenging process for schools. Once this consensus has been reached it is expressed in the mission statement, which comprises a core message.
c) Aims
Aims are what the school hope to achieve throughout the year. They include the school’s vision and description and they are usually written down in the school prospectus and set by the Head Teacher in cooperation with the parents and the wider community, who will use the national curriculum to see if children will achieve a key stage for that year or they are on course to do so at the key stage. The aims of education today combine the requirement to prepare children for their economic role in the society with the need to identify their individual strengths and weaknesses, to provide them with the necessary support to achieve several targets. In fact, the techniques of the child-centred education are being adapted not only to ensure the individual child’s growth, but also to prepare him or her to fulfil their economic role in the modern society. Each school has its specific goals, but all schools should be committed to providing quality education for all our children. Schools’ goals usually relate to the promotion of the intellectual, physical, social, personal, spiritual, moral and aesthetic development of all its pupils. Below is a list of several key aims:
• to create and keep a caring atmosphere;
• to be able to participate;
• to have high standards in the school environment;
• to find ways to engage a child in learning;
• to get children involved with each other to encourage learning;
• to make children talk about subjects openly;
• to care for their school and its environment in the surrounding area;
• to involve parents in a child’s education, through the school’s website;
• to recognise that their school is a multicultural place with no barriers placed against race or religion and to respect.
Therefore, a school should aim to help every pupil reach his or her academic potential, acquire the attitudes, experiences, knowledge and skills to lead a full life, and also cope with the demands and expectations of society.
d) Values
Values describe the moral code the school represents and also provide a general guide to behaviour and reference points in decision making. Values commonly relate to the individuals and the relationships between people; and to our contribution to our society and environment (Aims, values and purposes; 2014). Generally, the value education is the process by which people give moral values to others. This definition refers to it as the process that gives young people an initiation into values, giving knowledge of the rules needed to function in relation to other people, and to seek the development in the student a grasp of certain underlying principles, together with the ability to apply these rules intelligently, and to have the settled disposition to do so. Some researchers use the concept values education as an umbrella of concepts that includes moral education and citizenship education. Many English schools provide a Values-based Curriculum. This means that they promote and teach a set of values to their pupils that will ensure they develop the skills to be good citizens in the future. To do that, schools support a curriculum with a set of principles (values) that are added into the day-to-day teaching and learning so that children and young people can develop social and emotional skills that will positively affect their behaviour.

There are at least 11 values that should be considered universal:
• Cooperation;
• Responsibility;
• Freedom;
• Democracy;
• Peace;
• Respect;
• Love;
• Tolerance;
• Honesty;
• Simplicity.
The Government set out its definition of British values in the Prevent Strategy 2011 and considered them to be democracy, rule of law, individual liberty, mutual respect and tolerance of those of different faiths and beliefs. At school these values should be reinforced through a variety of ways and practices.
Democracy
Many schools reinforce the principle of democracy, with the democratic process being used for important decisions within the school community, for instance, the elections held for our Head Boy and Girl and Prefects.
The rule of law
The importance of laws, whether they are those governing the class, the school, or the country, should be consistently reinforced throughout regular school’s days, as well as when dealing with behaviour and through school assemblies. Students should be taught the value and reasons behind laws, that they govern and protect us, the responsibilities that this involves and the consequences when laws are broken.
Individual liberty
Students should be actively encouraged to make independent choices, knowing that they are in a safe, secure and supportive environment. Students should be encouraged to know, understand and exercise their rights and personal freedoms and receive advice about how to exercise these safely, for example through our exploration of E-Safety in PSHE.
Mutual respect
Respect is at the core of many schools’ ethos and is modelled by students and staff alike. The schools should promote respect for others and this is reiterated through the learning environments. Mutual respect is embraced throughout the curriculum from the concept of fair play in PE to a number of “buddy programmes” which promote mutual respect between students across different year groups within the schools.
Tolerance of those of different faiths and beliefs
This is achieved through equipping students with the ability to understand their place in a culturally diverse society and by giving them opportunities to experience diversity within the school community. Students should be actively encouraged to share their faith and beliefs within the school.

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“A

“A & P”, by John Updike, creates a unique and very rebellious plot based on the trivial fact of three girls who enter almost naked to a supermarket. From his position of privilege in the box, the protagonist observes the diverse reactions that the girls awaken between the public and the owner or manager of the supermarket. The outcome is somewhat unexpected because Sammy rebels against the way the store manager treats the girls. Many lessons can be learned from reading “A & P”. The careless way in which the girls walk into the A & P Supermarket in bathing suits causes everyone’s attention and the manager to go off on them and tell them how inappropriate was their clothing.
Moreover, Sammy, a teenage clerk at an A ; P grocery store, works the cash register on a hot summer day when three young women about their age walk barefoot and dressed in swimsuits to buy snacks. Although they dress for the beach, Sammy allows the girls to continue shopping while they are valued sexually. Imagine the girls’ details of their appearance, excessive impressions that, to their surprise, are shaken when the leader of the trio, a stunned girl has doubled “Queenie”, says in a voice unlike what she had created in her mind. Lengel, the old and bitter manager, feels that the girls do not dress appropriately to enter a grocery store. He rebukes
Cortes 2
them, telling them that this is not the beach and that they should have the next time covering their shoulders, which Sammy believes embarrassed. Offended by this mistreatment of the dignity of these clients, Sammy ceremoniously removes his apron from the store and bow tie and resigns on the spot, despite mention by the pain manager this would cause his parents. Sammy then leaves the store, apparently in expectation of some demonstration of affection or appreciation from the young women involved, only to find that they have already left, apparently unaware of his presence.
On the other hand, this short story’s characters create a scenario of conflict and adds to the plot of the story. Lengel, is the local A ; P manager, Lengel is a man who spends most of his days behind the door marked “manager”. He seems genuinely concerned even as he feels the need to enforce the store’s policy when the girls appear in their bathing suits. “Queenie” is the name Sammy gives to the gorgeous girl who drives her two friends through the grocery store in their swimsuits. Plaid and Big Tall Goony Goony, are the nicknames that Sammy gives to Queenie’s friends, who are somewhat more uneasy about their inappropriate attire. Readers do not learn Sammy’s name until the end of the story, even if he is the narrator of the first person in the story. He is a check clerk in an A & P supermarket. His language indicates that, at the age of nineteen, he is both cynical and romantic. Lastly, there is Strokesie, He is another inspector of the store mentioned. He is a minor character in this short story, but it really shows a sign of ritualism; Stokesie often jokes with Sammy that will not be promoted unless there is a Soviet takeover of the United States within 20 years.
Continuously, “The story is told from the first-person point of view of Sammy. From the opening line — “In walks, these three girls in nothing but bathing suits” — Updike establishes
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Sammy’s distinctively colloquial voice. Most of the story is told in the present tense as if Sammy is talking”. (Sustana) After gathering a few sources all of them coincide with the same or similar information. “Updike wrote “A & P” for The New Yorker, the story assumes a reader whose response to Sammy can go far beyond what the character can articulate for himself”‘. (Saldivar). As the short story goes on it is not expected for the first person, Sammy to quit his job for a trio of girls who walked in bathing suits into a supermarket. “The story ends with the narrator’s rueful reflection: “and my stomach kind of fell as I felt how hard the world was going to be to me hereafter.”” (Keller) Sammy had just quitted his job and had not thought of the consequences at the moment of his decision.

A

A) A farmer is deciding whether or not to add fertiliser to his or her crops. If the farmer adds 1 kilogram of fertiliser per hectare, the value of the resulting crops rises from $80 to $100 per hectare. According to marginal analysis when the farmer should add fertiliser?
Marginal Analysis refers to an examination of the effects of additions to or subtraction’s from a current situation. (Layton, Robinson, Tucker, 2016, p. 35) The term marginal is classified as extra. It therefore helps in deciding between options. In this situation the value of the crops is $80 without the addition of 1 kilogram of fertiliser and value rises to $100 if the farmer decides to add 1 kilogram of fertiliser per hectare. For example if the cost of fertiliser is less than $20, let’s say its $15 per hectare the farmer should add fertiliser as per the marginal analysis because the profit will increase by $5 with the addition of the fertilisers and therefore the marginal cost will increase every $20 if the fertiliser cost is set up at $15. Therefore according to marginal analysis the farmer should add fertiliser as long as the cost is less than $20 per kilogram. (Layton, Robinson, Tucker, 2016, p. 35).
B) Bill has $10 that he can spend on a Superman action figure, a Batman graphic novel or an X-Men T-shirt. Bill decides to buy the action figure, even though the graphic novel was a close second choice. What is the opportunity cost of buying the action figure?
Opportunity cost is the best alternative that is sacrificed for a chosen alternative. (Layton, Robinson, Tucker, 2016, p. 33) The opportunity cost is classified as an option that is given up as best alternative and is therefore not where Bill spends $10 to buy the action figure. As opportunity cost is the best alternative sacrificed for a chosen alternative. So therefore, in this case the opportunity cost of buying the action figure is the Batman Graphic Novel because the graphic novel is the best alternative which is sacrificed and the action figure is a chosen alternative by Bill. It cannot be an X Men T-Shirt because the graphic novel was Bill’s close second choice.
C) Wheat farmers across Australia have to sell their produce at one fixed price for all wheat produced. Thus, price does not vary in relation to the individual farmer’s quantity of wheat sold. Draw this type of wheat demand curve and decide what value the slope has
Question 2
a) Explain if a firm in the perfectly competitive market would or would not innovate?
In a perfectly competitive market a firm would not innovate because they will not get a higher price for their products from the buyers because there exists to be lot of firms but they can innovate by reducing their cost and expenses in order to increase their profit.
b) What are the two main differences between monopoly and competition?
Monopoly Competition
The market structure is represented by only a single seller which means there are high barriers as which makes it even difficult for new firms to enter the market (Layton, Robinson, Tucker, 2016, p. 188) The market structure is represented by a lot of firms which means there are no barriers for a firm to enter the market (Layton, Robinson and Tucker, 2016, p. 160)

The type of product is unique which means that close substitutes don’t exist. (Layton, Robinson, Tucker, 2016. p. 189) All the firms are seen as producing a homogenous (similar) product. The products and services produced by the firms are identical. (Layton, Robinson, Tucker, 2016, p. 159)

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Monopoly and Perfect Competition | Difference


http://courses.missouristate.edu/ReedOlsen/courses/eco165/Notes/pc-m.pdf
c) What happen with firm’s price and revenue operating in competitive market if the firm doubles the amount of output it sells?
Revenue in basic terminology is defined as the sum of money a firm receives. Total Revenue is calculated as price x quantity. If a firm in a competitive market doubles the amount of output it sells or in other words it can be said if the firm doubles the quantity then the revenue will then be calculated as price x quantity*2. Therefore, this is only going to double the total revenue if the firm doubles the amount of output/ quantity and the price therefore doesn’t change it remains constant.

Question 3
The following table shows the quantity of a product demanded at two different prices:

P ($) Qd
16
14 25
35

a) Calculate the proportionate change in quantity demanded when price falls from $16 to $14.
The proportionate change in quantity demanded when the price falls from $16 to $14 is:
%change in quantity demanded = New-Old = 35-25 = 10/25 = 0.4
Old 25
b) Calculate the proportionate change in price when price falls from $16 to $14.
The proportionate change in price when the price falls from $16 to $14 is:
%change in price = New-Old = 14-16 = 2/16 = 0.125
Old 16
c) What is the price elasticity of demand between $16 and $14? Interpret the results.
The price elasticity of demand between $16 and $14 = %change in quantity demanded
%change in price
Therefore Ped = 0.4 = 3.2
0.125
In other words it can be said that it is price elastic because the price elasticity of demand is greater than 1 which is 3.2, therefore demand changes by a greater% than the price% change.
d) What is the price elasticity of demand between $16 and $14 if you applied the ‘mid-point’ formula? Interpret the results.
Mid-Point Formula = New – Old
(New+Old)/2
Price elasticity of demand = %change in quantity demanded/%change in price
%change in quantity demanded = New-Old
(New+Old)/2
35-25 = 10 = 10 = 0.33
(35+25)/2 60/2 30

%change in price= New-Old
(New+Old)/2
14-16 = 2 = 2 = 0.13
(14+16)/2 30/2 15

Price Elasticity of Demand = 0.33 = 2.53 (Price Elastic)
0.13
Question 4
a) The diagram below shows the demand for and supply of petrol. The market is initially in equilibrium at point x. To which equilibrium point (a, b, c, d, e, f, g or h) will the market move from point x after each of the following changes?

i) A rise in the cost of refining petrol.
If there is a rise in the cost of refining petrol will cause an upward movement along the demand curve which is point “h”.
ii) A fall in bus and train fares. – Point “F”
iii) A fall in the price of crude oil and an increase in the price of cars. – Point “E”
iv) A rise in tax on petrol and a reduction in tax on cars.

b) The government has decided that the free market price of cheese is too low. Suppose the government imposes a binding price floor in the cheese market.

i). Use a supply and demand diagram to show the effect of this policy on the price of cheese and the quantity of cheese sold.
S of cheese
Minimum Price of cheese surplus
Price Floor
Equilibrium Price

D of cheese
QD QS
Figure A Quantity

S of cheese

Equilibrium price
Min. price of cheese Price Floor
Shortage D of cheese

QS QD
Quantity
Figure B
The term price floor is defined as a legally established minimum price a seller can be paid. (Layton, Robinson, Tucker, 2016, p. 89) Price floors are most commonly used in agriculture industry in order to protect the farmers. Therefore in order to be effective the price floor set by the government should be on top of the price of equilibrium not below the equilibrium price because the market will not sell the cheese below the equilibrium and is also considered not relevant.
http://economics.fundamentalfinance.com/micro_price-floor.php

ii) Is there a shortage or a surplus of cheese sold? ?Explain
Therefore in this situation there is a surplus because the quantity demanded is less as compared to the quantity supplied.

iii) Farmers complain that the price floor has reduced their total revenue. Is this possible? Explain.
Yes it is possible that farmers will complain the price floor has reduced their total revenue because if there is surplus the floor price which has been set up by the government will drop below the equilibrium price and in order to avoid this from happening the government must step in.
iv) In response to these complaints, the government agrees to purchase all of the surplus cheese at the price floor. Compared to the previous arrangement who benefits from this policy? Who loses?
Therefore it is a win-win situation for the farmers because they know that if the customers don’t buy the cheese when the price is above the equilibrium price the government will buy it so therefore it benefits the farmers and customers are losers because they are hence forced to buy the cheese at a higher price and there will be customers who will not buy cheese because they can’t afford it.

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