( DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED LINGUISTICS )
A Gender Based Adjectival Study of Women’s and Men’s Novels
WAQAS SOHAIL (9549)
ZIA MUZAMMIL (9550)
It is well known in the field of linguistics that language varies from region to region, society to society and person to person. The research aim is to do comparison of use of adjectives between male novelists and female novelists in their writings. Adjectives play an important role to qualify any object or noun and also clear the information about the object and make the writing more effective as well. For this purpose researchers have analyzed four (4) novels of both male and female novelists using quantitative and qualitative methods. The researchers have taken the quantitative difference by using ant conc. Software and on the other hand qualitative difference has been got through personal study and observation of representative sample of corpora. Differences have been observed in the gender based study of fictions. Here are some reasons which are responsible for this factor under considerations. Those reasons might be, that male existence in the society and control in their hand. Their speech and writing might include the element of authority and another aspect is that the nature of female is considered soft and delicate which may influence and create difference among the writing of males and females.
The concept of gender diversity has been widely discussed over the years. The way conversations, actions, attire and thinking of men and women are always undergoing investigation, and tend to focus on differences between sexes rather than analogy. The term gender is a broad concept; especially the two genders and gender words are difficult to separate. In the “Language and Gender” book by Penelope Eckert and Sally McConnell, the difference between gender and gender is explained by the following: “Gender is taxonomy based on potential reproductive, and gender is a social statement of biological gender “(1)
Fiction is the most readable and easily accessible genre in print media around the world. Sir Thomas Malory (about 1415-18-14 March 1471) – English writer, author or compiler of Le Morte d’Arthur. He is considered the first novelist as a literary story. Now one day, online versions of fiction are readily available online. As long as we are talking about research, this is a gender orientation based on fictions. Too many living writers are different from female writers, because the writing style varies from community to community and person. The purpose of the study – to find out the differences that have occurred when writing novels and novels.The study will give a difference between the style of writing male writers and female novels. For research, researchers have taken on the various novels of male Asian writers and female female writers. The purpose of getting corpuses from Asian writing is to introduce famous Asian writers.
It is hypothesized that female writers use more adjectives than male writers in their writing.
Here are some research questions
Do the female writers use more adjectives than male writers in their writing.Why do the female writers use more adjectives than male writers in their writing.Research objectives:
The research objectives are
Analysis of Asian male and female writing.
Study of excessive use of attributive adjectives by the female writers.
Analysis that how female’s writing is different from male.
Usage of adjective by the both gender base writers.
“So the girl is cursed, if she is, cursed, if she is not.” If she refuses to speak as a woman, she is ridiculed and criticized as subconscious, if she finds out, she is mocked as not thinking clearly, not participating in serious discussion: in a sense, less absolute. These two choices of a woman — less than a woman or less than one person — are very painful. ” (one)
These are the words of famous linguist Robin Lakoff from his book The Language and Place of a Woman (1975) and shows common beliefs about language and sex in the 1970s. Lakoff tried to outline some of features she chooses to identify as “female language.” Some of the features he mentions are color rules, adjectives, and tags. Lakoff also described the feminine language as violent, and she expressed the view that women should use a more “masculine language” to be empowered. Although Lakoff’s work received several criticisms, its results created a basis for further research and understanding of gender-based differences in language.
Since 1975, several different approaches to this area have emerged. Different ways to study and study the relationship between language and gender have had a great change over the years. The strategy, called the scarcity principle, reached the peak in the 1970s. In general, it may be controversial that early work in the language and gender field often raises sexist stereotypes. Looking at the approach of today’s linguists, one can assume that stereotypical beliefs about language and sex do not exist.
However, since dynamic approaches and gender beliefs in modern society and culture are the main focus for most linguists, it is important to look at the most important cultural tools that we have today. Thus, this study will use a dynamic strategy as a basis for evaluating the use of written language in fashion magazines. Previous research in this area was written by Carolyn Bergsten and titled “The Language of Women’s and Men’s Magazines — A Study of Gender Diversity” (2).
His study relates to many language features that are believed to indicate the differences between language and man. She studied the language of fashion magazines for men and fashion magazines for women.
Research methodology:To conduct research to find out the differences between the style of writing male writers and female writers. The two novels of male writers and two novels of female writers were chosen for the study.
The reluctant fundamentalist by Mohsin Hamid.
The kite runner by Khalid Hosseini.
Burnt shadow by Kamila shamsie.
The god of small things by Arundhati roy.
All data is aggregated and then tagged with CLAWS tags and ant-conc processes. software. The frequency of different categories of lexical items and structures is detected by a list of words where the word is displayed at a higher rank, which occurs with a higher trend.
Results and discussion:
The perception before research is female writers who use more adjectives than male writers. In the novels written by male writers, 8,808 types of words were found and 199369 tokens were found. On the other hand, in the novels written by female writers, there are 11027 types of words and 170398 tokens.
The hypothesis prior to the study is that female writers use more adjectives than male authors, and this shows that female writers have a greater tendency to use adjectives other than male writers. Adjectives 5667 are visible in women and 4599 adjectives in writing.
Therefore, studies show that women use more adjectives than men.
Our second research question is why female writers use more adjectives than male writers? It was also noticed why this happened?
After research, they focused on elements that were the causes and had an impact between the differences in the writing of male and female novels. Often the language of a woman is probably more polite because of the element of delicacy.
Their language is usually more soft and respectful. Another factor that is rarely known in the hands of women has an effect, and women often use the broader frequency of hedges. The more dual characteristics of adjectives can be seen only because of the elements of civility.
Data analysis and finding:
According to ant conc. Statistical results of the research are following
Frequency of word types
In females’ writing in males’ writing
Frequency of tokens
In females’ writingin males’ writing
Frequency of adjectives
In females’ writingin males’ writing
Because of the difference in the frequency of words between the mutual letter, the normalization step is important. At this stage, the frequency of adjectives is divided by the frequency of words in both letters, and then multiplied by 2,000,000.
In females’ writingin males’ writing
5481/170398 X 2000000 = 643314391/199369 X 2000000 = 44049
So the average frequency of adjectives in females’ writing is 64331 and the average frequency of adjectives in males’ writing is 44049.
It is recommended that female novels use more adjectives than male authors, but after research differences are observed when writing men and women, it is found that Asian female writers use more adjectives than men’s novelist of Asia and writing can be divided on the basis of gender differences. It also decides that usually the common language of women is usually more sincere because of the delicacy element. Their language is usually gentler and courteous, so female novels use more adjectives than male novelists.
Here are some references that has been used in the research.
“Language and Woman’s Place” by Robin Lakoff. (1975)
“The language of women’s and men’s magazines a study of gender-based variations” by Caroline Bergsten. (2000)