6858003340735In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
00In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Control of Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera) through Botanical Extracts Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Jaman (Syzygium cumini)
Roll # 20 (B) Evening
Department of Entomology
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences & Technology
Bahauddin Zakariya University
Department of Entomology
Bahauddin Zakariya University,
We, the supervisory committee, hereby certify that the contents and form of report submitted by MUHAMMAD SHAHZAIB (20-B) has been found satisfactory for evaluation. It is therefore recommended that further necessary action may be taken for the final award of the degree of B.Sc. (Hons.) Entomology.
Dr. Shoaib Fareed
I gravely declare that this research work is written by me for submitting it to fulfil the requirements for the degree of “Bachelors of Agriculture”. All sources of information have been acknowledged in this report.
Muhammad Shah Zaib
Undoubtedly, my first thanks are to my ALLAH ALMIGHTY, the beneficent, the merciful, the omnipotent, the omnipresent, the compassionate with whose favour and grace, I today have succeeded in achieving and completing this task elegantly and easily. I offer my humble gratitude from the core of my heart to the HOLY PROPHET HAZRAT MUHAMMAD (S.A.W.W) who is eve a torch of guidance and knowledge for the whole mankind.
I acknowledge with thanks to the Chairman of the Department, Dr. Muhammad Razzaq and my Supervisor Dr. Shoaib Freed for his inspiring advice, kind attitude, co-operation, constructive suggestions and sympathetic behaviour, scholastic guidance and immense moral support, dynamic and affectionate supervision made it very easy to undertake this project.
I wish to acknowledge my deep sense of profound gratitude to Shahjahan and Najaf Ali for their candid cooperation, skilful suggestions and encouragement throughout my data collection.
I cannot express my feelings of thankfulness to my parents and other family members who supported and me at every point.
Muhammad Shah Zaib
Table of Contents
Title Page No
1. Abstract 07
2. Introduction 08
3. Review of Literature 10
4.Materials and Methods 19
4.1 Collection and rearing of insect 19
4.2 Botanicals preparation 19
4.3 Bioassay 20
4.4 Data analysis 21
5. Results 21
5.1 Effect of A. indica extract on the mortality of O. hyalinipennis 21
5.2 Effect of S. cumini extract on the mortality of O. hyalinipennis 22
6. Discussion 23
7. Conclusion 25
Cotton is a major cash crop of Pakistan. Dusky cotton bug is a pest of cotton seeds and lint. It losses the seeds viability by sucking cell sap from them and discolour the lint. As a cotton pest threatens the cotton industry in Pakistan. Insecticidal activity of two botanicals neem (Azadirachta indica) and jamun (Syzygium cumini) were tested against dusky cotton bug. Eight different concentrations were prepared of the botanicals. Both the botanicals showed high mortality rates against dusky cotton bug. Mortality increased with increase in concentration. Mortality in neem 95% and jamun 87.5% was observed under laboratory conditions. Neem provided better control as compared to jamun. Botanical insecticides are better as compared to synthetic pesticides. Because, they are safer, cheaper, no health hazard issues, eco-friendly and providing good control of pests.
Key words: Oxycarenus hyalinipennis, Azadirachta indica, Syzygium cumini, Mortality, Insecticidal activity, Botanical insecticides.
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important and major cash crop of Pakistan. It is a source of income for unskilled village people. It is a good source of foreign exchange for the country (Farooq, 2014). It is a multi-purpose crop and provides raw material to industry e.g; Textile, Edible Oil, etc. (Mallah et al., 1997). Cotton seed for oil accounts 80% of the country production of oilseed. Cotton and their products contribute about 10% of GDP and 55% to the foreign earnings of Pakistan. The area under the cultivation of cotton increased in the last 30 years, about 7.86million acres in 2015-16 (Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2015-16). Due to its importance it is also called White Gold.
Despite of all efforts, yield per acre of cotton in Pakistan is very low as compared to other countries (Baksh et al., 2005). There are various factors that are responsible for low yield of cotton. One of them is insect pests that are responsible for causing 30-40% yield loss (Kannan et al., 2004: Haque, 1991). In this sucking as well as chewing insect pests are included. Among the sucking insect pests dusky cotton bag, Oxycarenus laetus (Lygaeidae, Hemiptera) is a minor pest. That causes damage by sucking cell sap from seed and staining lint. After the introduction of Bt cotton and due resistance against lepidopterous larvae, especially cotton blooms, it gained unprecedented popularity (Peshinet al., 2007: Arshad et al., 2011). Its fibre quality is high in terms of fibre length and strength (Ahsan and Altaf, 2009). Its cultivation increased over the year in terms of reduced production cost, insecticide application, environmental pollution, etc. (James, 2002: Dhillon et al., 2011). Bt is effective against the lepidopterous larvae, but not effective against many sucking insect pests (Hofs et al., 2004).
Dusky cotton bug is a serious threat due to early cultivation of Bt cotton (Khan et al., 2014). The dusky cotton bug was the minor pest of cotton, but now it has attained the status of serious pest of cotton and a threat to the early and late sown cotton crop. Recently, it has become a widespread and pest of common economic importance (Peral, 2006: Smith and Brambila, 2008). Both nymphs and adults feed on immature seed causing different types of injuries to the crop, including reduction in cotton yield, seed weight and all contents (Sewify and Semeada, 1993: Srinivas and Patil, 2004). It may also feed on soft leaves and young stems to obtain moisture (Ananthakrishan et al, 1982). It causes severe damage to seed embryo radical and cotyledon, reduces seed viability (Kirkpatrick, 1923: Pearson, 1958: Srinivas and Patil, 2004) and deteriorates quality of cotton by staining cotton (Henry, 1997: Sweet, 2000). Dusky cotton bug is a serious pest of cotton seeds (also called cotton seed bug). It is also causing a problem in the industry, during ginning process. Bugs are crushed that stain the valuable lint, decrease its quality also stained lint fetch a low price in the market. Cause problem for field labour during cotton picking. Due to these problems, it is attaining the attention of Government and Farmers to take suitable control measures for the management of the dusky cotton bag.
There are different pest control methods that are used for controlling pests. Cultural control, Mechanical control, Host plant resistance, Biological control, Chemical control and Use of Botanical extracts. About 90% farmers protect crops from pests by using chemicals (Prayogo et al., 2005). Chemical control is the best method to control pest when all control measures fail (Bashir et al, 2001: Raza and Afzal, 2000). Chemical control for crop protection is desirable and unavoidable part of integrated pest management (Mohyddin et al., 1997). All control measures that are used for bollworms control, are effective for dusky cotton bug e.g; all insecticides that are used for pink bollworm control, are effective for dusky cotton bag and red cotton bug. But, with the introduction of Bt cotton in the country, applications of insecticides have been reduced also Bt cotton is not effective against sucking insect pests (Patil et al., 2006). Reduction in application of insecticides against bollworms has provided a favourable environment for population build-up of minor pests like dusky cotton bug to become the major threat to economic importance of Pakistan (Ullah et al., 2016; Shahid et al., 2017). Besides, effectiveness of chemical control for pest control, it also has adverse effects on the environment and human health.
For the control of dusky cotton bug, we have used botanical extracts of different plants such as Neem, Tobacco, Chrysanthemum, Murraya, Eucalyptus. Botanical insecticides are safer and environmentally friendly. Biopesticides are best for pest control (Stoll 2001). Because, they are non-toxic and biodegradable (Dolui and Debnath, 2010).
Review of Literature
The common use of pesticides at tiresome application have enlarged the input cost of indigenous farmer and similarly stimulated the thoughtful problem of pest resistance. The primer of transgenic cotton since last decades has played an important role in conquering the pest population of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund) which is the key pest of cotton in all over the world. Nevertheless, the original botanical extracts have been used efficiently contrary to various sucking pests of cotton but only few studies have been endeavoured to detect their achievement against bollworms. Hence, the current study has been planned to notice the dual achievement of transgenic cotton and botanical extracts counter to pink bollworm during two successive growing years (2015 and 2016). The three plant extracts such as tobacco (Nicotiana tabacium), neem (Azadirachtin indica) and datura (Datura stramonium) were castoff. The results exhibited that sprays at different pause designated the highest pest population decrease at tobacco (17.45-15.09%) followed by neem (14.58-15.33%) and datura (11.72-7.81%) in both varieties and similar tendency was also noted in the second year of the study. The effect of varietal difference of Bt. and non -Bt. cotton varieties was not much noted in the 2015 but later in 2016 the dual result of tobacco and Bt. cotton on larval population was observed. The bio-extracts were ample genuine until 48 hrs, which specified that these bio-pesticides need to spray frequently (Rajput et al., 2017).
One of the most significant world-wide problems is caring crops from insects. For the control of insects, artificial chemicals are unceasingly used, and their poisonousness endangers health of farm operators, animals and food consumers. The harmful effects on human health led to a renaissance of attention in botanical insecticides due to their minimal costs and environmental side effects. In this, we analysis the use of plant mixtures (essential oils, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, esters and fatty acids) having anti-insect properties and their position as a substitute to the chemical compounds used in the removal of insects in different ways, namely repellents, feeding deterrents/antifeedants, toxicants, growth retardants, chemosterilants, and attractants. Botanical pesticides affect only target insects, not abolish beneficial natural opponents and provide residue-free food and innocuous environment. We, therefore, indorse using botanical insecticides as an integrated insect management program which can significantly decrease the use of artificial insecticides (Hikal et al., 2017).
The ended use of chemical insecticides causes environmental and health problem have been the substance of anxiety so plant extracts which known as biocide or green pesticides can be a substitute decent source of chemical pesticide due to their safe, eco-friendly and more companionable properties. These are being used to achieve the pest and lessen the produce loss. The different types of plant extract used as biocides such as neem, garlic, tobacco, kappettiya, syringe, ginger and many others are being applied to control and achieve the pest or disease of different plants. The petroleum ether extract of periwinkle, can be used to control the pest Uzi fly during sericulture. The neem extract of different concentrations displays important effect to control pest of rice, betel leaf and vegetable. Garlic bulb extract, tobacco and kappettiya leaf extract, Eve’s apple latex/ fruit/ seeds extract, lilac flower extract, neem leaf/ seeds or it oil all are act as latent insecticide to tea, rice, betel leaf and vegetables pest. The drive of this review has exposed to control pest in some frugally important crops through different plant extract for sustainable agriculture (Rahman et al., 2016).
A ground study was carried out during 2013 at the experimental area of Entomology Section, Agriculture Research Institute, (ARI) Tando Jam to inspect the result of bio-pesticides against sucking insect pests of brinjal crop under field conditions. Five treatments with three replications were used. The treatments were: T1=chemical control (confidor/Diamond), T2=Neem (Azadirachta indica), T3= Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), T4= Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globus), T5= Untreated (Control). Three insect pests were found invading brinjal including white flies, jassid and mites. Pre-treatment- and post-treatment observations were noted. The results exposed that against white fly, the first spray of chemical control(confidor) showed maximum reduction percent (96.62%) followed by Neem extract (82.60%), Tobacco extract (75.95%), Eucalyptus extract (73.93%) and lowest for untreated control (11.07%); while in the second spray also, chemical control(Diamond) presented highest effect contrary to white fly (78.32%); trailed by Neem extract (67.53%), Tobacco extract (56.43%), Eucalyptus extract (42.25%) and least by untreated plot (5.49%). Against jassid, chemical control (confidor) showed maximum effect (77.90%) as observed during 1st spray, followed by Neem extract (55.95%), Tobacco extract (53.38%), Eucalyptus extract (53.99%) and untreated control (8.00%), while after second spray also chemical control (Diamond) showed maximum decrease percent (81.70%) followed by Neem extract (68.73%), Tobacco extract (55.72%), Eucalyptus extract (50.66%) and the lowest was caused by untreated control (13.91%). Against mite population on brinjal the first spray results exhibited that chemical control (confidor) showed maximum effect (98.19%) followed by Neem extract (96.19%), Tobacco extract (95.75%), Eucalyptus extract (86.86%) and least population was noted in untreated control (9.96%). After second spray, chemical control (Diamond) showed maximum reduction percent (99.65%), followed by Neem extract (98.33%), Tobacco extract (92.85%), Eucalyptus extract (88.93%) and the lowest reduction percent was resulted by untreated control (9.14%) respectively. Chemical control (confidor/Diamond) showed its dominance in effect to contest sucking insect pests studied in brinjal, followed by Neem extract, Tobacco extract, Eucalyptus extract and untreated control endured the minimum (Ali et al., 2016).
A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacies of four plant derivative insecticides for control of major insect pests of garden egg. These bio-pesticides include Neem (Azadirachta indica), African black pepper (Piper guineense), (Jatropha curcas), Castor seed oil (Ricinus communis) and cyperforce insecticide 12.5% E.C and control which established with the six treatments. Results showed commonest insects to include Green leaf hopper (Empoasca spp.), Fruit borers (Leucinodes orbanalis), variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus) and Cutworms (Spodoptera littoralis). All the bio-pesticidal treatments expressively reduced insect invasion with low damage and higher fruit yield compared with the control. The African black pepper (Piper guineense) showed highest degree of efficacy in this respect of all the plant extracts. This was tailed by neem (A. indica), castor seed oil and Jatropha curcas in that order. The bio-pesticides compared positively with the artificial insecticide which served as a check and noted lowest insect infestation and highest fruit yield of 13,666.7kg/ha and 16,083.3kg/ha. The potential of the plant-derived insecticides in controlling the insect pests of garden egg have been recognised and hence could be a good substitute for artificial insecticide and as well could be utilized for such purpose (Ibekwe et al., 2014).
A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of Garlic and Chili mixture solution on control of insect pests in cabbage crop. The solution was sprayed at different intervals after uprooting. The efficiency of Garlic and chili mixture solution on cabbage insect pests was measured. Results showed that Garlic and chili combination solution was the efficiently reduced cabbage insect pests. On other hand, the spray solution not only reduced the number of days mandatory for the cabbage growth but also greatly improved the leaf number, head diameter, head weight, and quality of cabbage. Garlic and chili mixture solution have positive effects on pest reduction and improve growth, yield and superiority of cabbage vegetable (Tuan et al., 2014). The efficacy of three botanicals, Cymbopogon citrates, Hyptis suaveolens and Eucalyptus globulus were confirmed on Callosobruchus maculatus (F), a pest of cowpea under ambient laboratory conditions. Oil extracts were attained using soxhlet apparatus and petroleum ether as solvent. Efficacies of the extracted oils were calculated on counted Callosobruchus maculatus and cowpea seeds in petri dishes. Insect mortality was examined at the different concentration levels for a few minutes and repeated three times for three weeks. In a screen house experiment, 1.0% concentration was observed to be the average and most active concentration and subsequently selected as a basis for evaluation in all the selected botanicals. The application of Hyptis suaveolens at 1.0 % was observed to be the most active and imortantly different from other botanicals while Eucalyptus globulus was the least effective (Akungba, 2013).
The mortality of Zonabris pustulata with different concentration of plant extracts was analyzed. For, instance, high pesticide activity was noted from the crude extracts of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum, Cynodon dactylon, Calotropis gigantean and Acalphya indicia. The mortality of Z. pustulata which occurred in A. indicia extract was increased with improved concentration of plant extracts at 48 and 72 h (Jeyaparvathi and Umayal, 2013). Repelling effects of peach plant L. (Rosales: Rosaceae), Eucalyptus, L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ashok, (Magnoliids: Annonaceae), Milk thistle, (Asterales: Asteraceae), and Sow thistle, (Asterales: Asteraceae) extracts each in petroleum ether, acetone and ethanol were assessed at the concentration of 1000, 500 and 250 ppm against cotton mealy bug (Phenococcus solenopcis) in a free choice bioassay for two weeks. The ethanol extract of was the most effective against cotton mealy bug having maximum repellence (72.5%) at 500 ppm dose. The lowest average repellence (26.3 %) was observed in acetone extract of at 500 ppm dose. Prunus persica, Eucalyptus globulus, Polyalthia longifolia, Silybum marianum, Sonchus oleraceus, Phenococcus solenopsis, Prunus persica, Silybum marianum (Roonjho et al., 2013).
The outcome of different plant extracts neem oil, garlic, eucalyptus and Datura. With the population of jassid (Amrassca devstans), whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and thrips (Thrips tabaci) were tested in Bt cotton under field condition. All the plant products showed different toxicity in contrast to sucking complex of Bt cotton 24, 72, 168 and 240 h after applications. Datura proved to be the most operative bringing important reduction in the pest population followed by neem oil. Garlic and eucalyptus also produced important results compared to untreated control. However, the two times application of plant products showed garlic and eucalyptus importantly less effective than Datura and neem oil (Khan et al., 2013).
Botanical extracts of three different plants, namely ginger (Zingiber afficinale), hail (Elettaria cardamomum) and shammar (Foeniculum vulgare) were tried for their toxicity against the adult beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis) a pest of date, threaten the date product of Saudi Arabia. All plants showed the efficacy against O. surinamensis. Ginger is the most potent plant tailed by the hail and shammar. These plants change the protein configuration of O. surinamensis after using PAGE for protein analysis. Ginger and shammar improved the insect protein subfraction than normal while, condensed separated bands, espeacially protein of moderate molecular weight (Al-Qahtani et al., 2012).
The effects of ethanolic extract of neem, Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), seeds and petroleum ether extract of Lantana camara leaves (Verbenaceae) on the populations of three cabbage pests, Plutella xylostella, Brevicoryne brassicae and Hellula undalis were premeditated, between January and April 2008. Extracts of the two plants were applied on cabbage plants to control these pests. An ordinary artificial chemical insecticide (Mektin) was used as reference product. The effects of plant extracts on the population subtleties of the pests’ species, the level of infestation and yield were evaluated. Importantly more of the pests infested the control plants than the treated plants. The average weight of cabbage heads on the sprayed plots was importantly heavier than that of the control unsprayed plots. The use of A. indica seeds and L. camara leaf extracts increased yield by 37.05% and 25.80%, respectively. Application on the cabbage plants with the plant extracts significantly reduced the numbers of pests associated with the control plants (Baidoo et al., 2012).
An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of eight botanical extracts on pest control in brinjal field. Accordingly, water extracts of dried leaves of Khuksa (Ficus hispida), Chotra (Lantana sp.), Chirata (Swietia chrata), Neem (Azadiracta indica), Bael (Aegle marmelos), Holde-hurhuri (Cleomp viscosa) and Marigold (Targetes erecta) and seeds of Mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni) were prepared and applied in experimental brinjal field at Rajshahi University. Out of these botanicals, Khuksha leaves extract exhibited best performance against the pest attack compare to other extracts. Marigold leaf extract also showed good results in the protection of brinjal plant from pest. The efficiency of Chotra, and Chirata leaf extracts was nearly same in brinjal plot against the pest attack. Neem leaf extracts showed average performance against pest. Mahogany seed extract showed minimum efficacy and hindered the normal plant growth and caused fruit rotting as well as reduced the yield of brinjal. Although Khuksha, Beal and Marigold leaf extracts were found operative against brinjal pests but a higher production was noted in the treatments of Neem and Chirata leaf extracts in experimental brinjal field (Azad et al., 2012).
Two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arac.: Tetranychidae), is an economic pest globally including Turkey, causing sombre damage to vegetables, ?owers, and fruit crops. In recent years, broad-spectrum insecticides/miticides have been applied to control this pest in Turkey. Control is di?cult primarily due to confrontation to conventional pesticides. This study was directed to determine e?cacy of pesticides obtained from ?ve di?erent plants Alliumsativum L. (Amaryllidaceae), Rhododendronluteum S. (Ericaceae), Helichrysum arenarium L. (Asteraceae), Veratrum album L. (Liliaceae), and Tanacetum parthenium L. (Asteraceae) against this mite. Bioassays were confirmed by two di?erent methods to determine the e?ects of changing concentrations. Experiments were did using 3cm diameter leaf disk from unsprayed bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). In addition, the e?ects of the extracts on reproduction and oviposition were examined. The extract generated high mortality. In the lowest-concentration bioassays, the adult mites laid lesser numbers of eggs compared to the untreated control. No ovicidal e?ect was observed (Erdogan et al., 2012).
A field experiment was directed to determine the comparative efficiency of ten botanical leaf aqueous extracts, panchagavya, acephate as standard check and untreated control against hoppers in rice during kharif 2009-2010 and 2010-2011.The treatments include: Aqueous leaf extract of Vitex, Pongamia, Custard, Calotropis at 5 and 7.5% concentration, Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE) at 5 and 7.5% concentration, panchagavya at 5 and 7.5% concentration, acephate 75%SP at 1.5 g/lt and untreated control. The cumulative data shows that the standard check-Acephate 75 SP at 1.5 g/lt recorded importantly higher mean % reduction of hoppers and higher grain yield over all the other treatments. Among the botanical extracts, NSKE at 7.5% concentration noted higher efficiency against hoppers by recording 49.4% mean reduction with a mean grain yield of 4775 kg/ha and found to be at par with some of the other botanical extracts. The Panchagavya and Custard leaf extracts at both the concentration shown importantly lower efficiency. Except Acephate and NSKE at 7.5% concentration, all the other treatments were found to be at par with each other in terms of grain produce (Reddy et al., 2012).
Extracts of Capsicum and garlic were extracted in xylene. The obtained extracts were used to prepare four emulsified concentrates “EC’s”. Formula 1 “capsicum xylene extract + emulsifier”, Formula 2 “garlic xylene extract + emulsifier”, Formula 3 “capsicum xylene extract in boiled linseed oil + emulsifier” and Formula 4 “garlic xylene extract in boiled linseed oil + emulsifier “. All organised formulations approved successfully the physicochemical properties of EC formulation according to WHO. Toxicity of all tested formulations were assessed against aphid using leaf and slide dipping technique whereas formula 2, 3 and 4 were assessed against Red mite. The attained results show that all tested formulations had insecticidal activity against tested pests, Formula 1 and Formula 2 were highly toxic to aphid and using capsicum and garlic as constituent in boiled oil formulation increased the efficiency of boiled oil against the Red mite, this efficiency depended on constituent of each formulation, method of treatment and tested pest (Kazem et al., 2010).
Studies were conducted at the Research Farm of the Institute for Agricultural Research, Zaria in 1999 and 2000 rainy seasons to assess the e?cacy and synergistic activity of extracts combinations from herbal landraces in reducing pest’s numbers on cowpea plants and confirming high yield of grains. The extracts mixed in a ratio 10:10 % w/w included: cashew nutshell + garlic bulb; cashew nutshell + African pepper and garlic bulb + chilli pepper. The results showed that all the herbal extract combinations reduced the numbers of the tested insect pests (legume ?ower bud thrips, legume pod borer larvae and pod sucking bugs) and pod injury as well as increased grain yields by 4 – 5 times compared to the untreated control in the two years of study. The synergistic advantage of mixing two di?erent plant species in botanical preparations could play a key role in the transformed e?ort to control pests of agricultural crops using biopesticides (Oparaeke et al., 2005).
Materials and Methods
Collection and rearing of insects
The Oxycarenus hyalinipennis were collected from the field of cotton (Gossipium hirsutum) of Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan. The culture was maintained in the Lab of Insect Microbiology under laboratory conditions (27±2?C and 65±5% relative humidity) with 12h light-12h dark period. The collected male and female were transferred to a glass cages. The mouth of cages was covered with the muslin cloth and tied with the rubber band. The lower portion of the cage was filled with the cotton seeds with lint to facilitate the egg laying of insect. Shoe flower (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) leaves were provided for feeding in these cages and leaves were changed after two days on regular basis. Laid eggs were kept at 26?C until hatching. The nymphs were kept in newly prepared cages. The newly hatched nymphs were provided with small cotton swabs soaked in water and fresh leaves of shoe flower for feeding. For bioassay, F1 was used.
The botanicals used i.e; neem (Azadirachta indica) and jaman, (Syzygium cumini) were obtained from the local market. Solutions of the botanicals were prepared by stirring 1gm of botanicals and 10 ml ethanol for 30 minutes to make the homogeneous mixture. These solutions were kept in dark area for 24 h to increase the activity of botanicals and then filtered with whatman paper. Eight concentrations of each botanical at different ppm value were prepared by mixing botanical solution and distilled water for treatment.
Table 1: Different concentrations of botanical extracts against Oxycarenus hyalinipennis
Concentration ppm Botanicals Extract species
Indica S. cumini
1st 6400 10000
2nd 3200 5000
3rd 1600 2500
4th 800 1250
5th 400 625
6th 200 312.5
7th 100 156.25
8th 50 78.125
Toxic effect was assessed by using leaf dip method. The shoe flower leaves were dipped in prepared concentration of botanicals. These dipped leaves were allowing to air dry for 30minutes and kept in petri dishes. Ten insects were released in each petri dish. These petri dishes were placed for 24 h and after that data were taken for six consecutive days. Mortality and activity of insects were recorded daily. In both experiments each treatment with control was replicated five times. All replications were observed regularly and insect were separated and counted to evaluate percentage mortality.
The toxicity and mortality rates were analysed by using Microsoft Office Excel, 2016.
Effect of A. indica extract on the mortality of O. hyalinipennisThe results showed that the mortality of O. hyalinipennis increased with the increase in the concentration of botanical extract. Maximum mortality 95.00 percent was recorded after application of 6400ppm concentration among all treatment while 45.00 percent was observed at 50ppm concentration, as compared to the control (Fig.1).
Fig.1 Mortality percentage of O. hyalinipennis after the treatment of A. indica extracts.
Effect of S. cumini extract on the mortality of O. hyalinipennis
The results showed that mortality of O. hyalinipennis increased with the increase in the concentration of botanical extract. Maximum mortality 87.50 percent was recorded after application of 10000ppm concentration among all treatment while 42.50 percent was observed at 78.125ppm concentration, as compared to the control (Fig. 2).
Fig.2 Mortality percentage of O. hyalinipennis after the treatment of S. cumini extracts.
The present studies on the effects of different concentrations of neem (Azadirachta indica) and jamun (Syzygium cumini) on dusky cotton bug was carried out during April 2018. Non-traditional botanical pest control materials comprising on neem and jamun leaf extracts were applied including a control on a laboratory population of dusky cotton bug. The results showed that all the concentrations of neem and jamun gave high mortality of dusky cotton bug population as compared to control. But, mortality percentage was higher in neem as compared to jamun. These findings agree with those of Dreyer. Who reported that simple neem products like aqueous extract of neem kernel powder, neem oil and ground neem kernals gave decent control of vegetables pest and others field crops including cicadellids, Jacobeilla facials and several Lepidopterans aubergines (brinjal) (Dreyer, 1986).
Effective control of jassid can be attained through the application of neem extracts and ground fruits (Siddiq, 1986). Neem leaf extract evidenced to be effective for control of cicadellid as it gave 58.13% (at 4% conc) and 47.60% (at 3% conc) mortality of the pest. The work done on the efficiency of neem (A. indica) by-products not only effective against chewing insects but also against Hemiptera and cicadellids (Jotwani and Srivastava, 1981).
Present studies are fairly in conformity with those of Schumtterer. Who also reported that aqueous extracts, oil and enriched extracts of plants such as A.indica and Melia azadirach, particularly, Triterpinoids are suitable for pesticides because of their efficiency against a wide range of pests such as a Hetreopera, Homoptera and Agromyzidae (Schumtterer, 1984).
Present studies revealed that neem leef extract gave better control against dusky cotton bug. Neem leaf extract applied for the control of mustard aphid, Nephotettix sp., Sogatella surcifera, pod sucking bug and thrips (Thripidas) (Ratanoara et al., 1994: Patel and Patel, 1998: Parvez et al., 1998: Naqvi et al., 1989: Natarajan and Sundaramurathy, 1990). In the present studies neem leaf extract 95.00% reduction of dusky cotton bug population was occurred on 6th day of application. The efficacy of neem samples, neem oil, Fenoxycarb and KN-1-35-20 under meticulous conditions in the field as well as in laboratory for control of sucking insect pest of cotton. Neem sample showed effective results against Jassid, Aphids and Thrips (Hassan et al., 1996).
In the present study Syzgium cumini is very effective for control of dusky cotton bug. Syzygium cumini is known to be very rich in gallic and ellagic acid polyphenol derivatives (Chattopadhyay et al., 1998: Mahmoud et al., 2001). Also, acylated flavonol glycosides, kaempferol, myricetin and other polyphenols have been derived from S. cumini leaves (Mahmoud et al., 2001: Timbola et al., 2002) which may be accountable for antifungal activity. S. cumini showed unimportant antifungal effects. Alcoholic leaf extracts were operative against Cryptococcus neoformans but not against Candida albicans (Braga et al., 2007). This shows that chemicals present in alcoholic fractions have specificity in their antifungal activity. Aqueous seed extract of S. cumini fruit was very effeceint against certain other fungal species, namely C. albicans, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus niger (Chandrasekaran and Venkatesalu, 2004). Anthocyanins such as glucoglucosides of delphinidin, petunidin and malvidin, present in fruit peel and phenolics in kernel and seed coatings (Benherlal and Arumughan, 2007: Veigas et al., 2007) could be accountable for the antifungal activity of fruit extracts (Schaefer et al., 2008).
The results of this investigation show that botanicals could form the basis for a successful formulation and commercialization of Biopesticides in developing countries. These plants are readily available in the local markets all the year round for farmers’ use to protect their crops. Since the materials are used in botanicals preparation for the treatment of various insect pests of crops. Due to excessive use of synthetic pesticide many problems have evolved such as costly, pest resistance, health hazard problems and environmental pollution. Botanical pesticides are safer, cheaper, easily biodegradable, technologically and environmentally friendly. They could provide valuable alternatives to the synthetic insecticides in the management of insect pests of different crops in limited resources. Further studies are required to determine their optimum concentration levels and spraying schedules for optimum pest control.
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