2. gases are the gases in Earth’s atmosphere

2. Radiative forcing is the capacity of a gas to affect the balance of energy that enters and leaves the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases are the gases in Earth’s atmosphere that absorb infrared radiation. The enhanced greenhouse effect is the additional warming produced by increased levels of gases that absorb infrared radiation (heat). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded in 2007 that human-produced greenhouse gases are the most likely cause of recent climate warming and that the world will almost certainly warm substantially during the 21st century.4. More than half of recent and projected sea-level rise is associated with the fact that water expands as it heats up; this is known as thermal expansion. How quickly the ocean absorbs increased atmospheric heat will significantly influence the rate of sea-level rise. Melting of glaciers and land-based ice sheets is the other major contributor to sea-level rise, as water previously “stored” on land shifts to the ocean. 5. Due to increased evaporation rates due to climate change, global average ocean and land surface temperatures are increasing, although effects at individual locations can vary. Precipitation and other weather patterns have begun to shift, with increased flooding in some locations and the increased intensity of tropical storm, as evidenced by the recent decade. Ice sheets and glaciers are melting due to the high rates of evaporation. These effects are expected to intensify in the future due to the rapid industrialization across the world, promoting higher temperatures, and therefore, increased rates of evaporation. 6. As warming increases exponentially in the 21st century, many species will undoubtedly become extinct, particularly those with narrow temperature requirements, those confined to small, specialized habitats, and those living in fragile ecosystems similar to the plants mentioned. Other species may survive in greatly reduced numbers and ranges. Ecosystems considered at greatest risk of loss of species in the short term are polar seas, coral reefs, mountain ecosystems, coastal wetlands, and tundra.7. Increasing numbers of studies report measurable changes in the biology of plant and animal species as a result of climate warming. Such effects range from earlier flowering times for plant species to migrations of aquatic species. Although generally not a benefit to humans, some species will come out of global climate change as winners, with greatly expanded numbers and range. Those organisms considered most likely to prosper include certain weeds, insect pests, and disease-carrying organisms common in a wide range of environments. Insects that migrate between Mexico and Canada could greatly increase in numbers if plant growth in Canada increases, this could cause problems for both communities.8. Although developed nations have large amounts of coastal infrastructure at risk, many developing nations may experience the greatest impacts of global climate change. Because developing countries have less technical expertise and fewer economic resources, they are the ones likely to be least able to respond to the challenges of global climate change. Most developing countries see increased use of fossil fuels as their route to industrial development and resist pressure from highly developed nations to decrease fossil fuel consumption.10. Shifting investments into solar energy technology would help reduce CO2 emissions which in turn would reduce global climate change. Intensity of hurricane and other natural disasters has been increasing with climate change costing insurance companies millions of dollars, so it would be in their best interest to help stop these changes.12. Acid deposition is a type of air pollution that includes acid that falls from the atmosphere as precipitation or as dry acid particles. Acid deposition occur when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the atmosphere. These pollutants react with water to produce sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and nitrous acid. Acid deposition kills aquatic organisms and may harm forests. Acid deposition attacks materials such as metals and stone. Chlorofluorocarbons are human-made organic compounds of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine that had many industrial and commercial applications. Catalyzed by sunlight, chlorofluorocarbons and other compounds, including halons, methyl bromide, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and nitrous oxide, can break protective ozone molecules in the stratosphere apart, converting them into oxygen molecules. Both of these factors result in global climate change. Humans and human related activity contribute the majority of chemicals which break down the stratosphere and harm ecosystems through acid displacement. The effects that human industrialization has on the environment can be seen in the form of various negative environmental impacts in a positive feedback loop. If the environment is not thought of as a system of cause and effect, the state of global climate change will only worsen with time.

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