2.1.4 Memory and Oxidative Stress
Oxidative stress has an important role in the generation of many human diseases (Rajendran et al., 2014). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are produced continuously in the body via oxidative metabolism, mitochondrial bioenergetics, and immune function (Roleira et al., 2015). The most common types of ROS include superoxide anion, hyphochlorous acid, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen, hypochlorite, hydroxyl radical, and lipid peroxides, which have a vital role in cell progression, growth, death, and differentiation. They can join with nucleic acids, enzymes, membrane lipids, proteins, and other small molecules (Rajendran et al., 2014). Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) manage the inflammation resulted from the short-term postprandial mitochondrial oxidative stress (Jung et al., 2009).
Normally, the production of ROS is managed by multiple antioxidant systems (Gandhi and Abramov, 2012). Oxidative stress is a status of imbalance between ROS generation and antioxidant protection, resulting in huge overgrowth of ROS (Ray et al., 2012). Oxidative stress has many different mechanisms includes cell membrane damage from lipid peroxidation, alterations in protein structure and role as aresult of protein oxidation, and structural damage to DNA (Gandhi and Abramov, 2012).
The most metabolically active organs in the body is the brain, it is affected by oxidative stress mainly because of the following causes. Firs, high oxygen demand of the brain, that may reach 20% of the body oxygen use. Second, the presence of high number of redox-active metals such as iron or copper and they catalyze ROS production. Third, the brain cell membranes polyunsaturated fatty acids are highly reactive and represent a substrates for lipid peroxidation(Wang and Michaelis, 2010). Finally, GSH in the brain levels in the brain is low, that have an impact of endogenous antioxidant in the removal of ROS (Ferreira et al., 2015).
Oxidative imbalance and the resulted neuronal damage may be an essential cause in the begining and development of AD (Wang et al., 2014). Memory and learning malfunctions are stimulated by injecting of A?1-42 into the mice bilateral hippocampus and were suppressed by diverse antioxidants (Li et al., 2014, Yu et al., 2015, Chu et al., 2012).
2.1.5 Memory and BDNF
The neurotrophin BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) is an individual from a group of neurotrophic factors basically engaged with directing the survival and separation of neuronal populaces amid advancement (Huang and Reichardt, 2001). An incredible group of confirmation shows additionally that BDNF directs the structure and elements of various neuronal circuits all through life (Lu et al., 2009).
Steady with the view that action subordinate changes in synaptic quality underlie memory handling and capacity (Kandel, 2001), a developing assortment of confirmation rose proposing that BDNF assumes a urgent part in learning and memory (Lu et al., 2009).
Numerous hippocampus and additionally amygdala-subordinate learning assignments, including dread elimination, are joined by particular changes in BDNF mRNA and protein handling, requiring ideal levels of endogenous BDNF to shape stable recollections. For instance, acknowledgment memory builds BDNF discharge and actuates ERK2 in the dentate gyrus and the perirhinal cortex(K. and M., 2012).
BDNF is associated with the development of various sorts of recollections and is likewise basic for keeping up dependable capacity of data in hippocampus, amygdala and separate cortex numerous hours subsequent to learning happens. BDNF might be important to check the regular procedure of memory rot, which is run of the mill in maturing and is exacerbated in some neurodegenerative disorders(K. and M., 2012).


2.2 million, that is the number of people in the United States who live with the mental disorder known as Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is defined as a chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels and behaves (NIMH,2016) and affects around 1% of the population. Its symptoms usually appear between the ages of 16 and 30. The disorder is found to affect males and females equally but does tend to have an early onset in males. The symptoms of Schizophrenia are placed into three categories, positive, negative and cognitive.
Positive symptoms are psychotic behaviors not typically seen in healthy people. Such behaviors include hallucinations, delusions, thought disorder and movement disorders. When experiencing hallucinations patients may also hear voices and seem to have “lost touch” with reality.
Negative symptoms are changes to normal emotions and behaviors. These symptoms may cause “flat affect” which is a decrease in the display of emotions via facial expressions or voice tone. Also, they may have reduced feelings of happiness in day to day life, difficulty beginning and completing a task and decreased speaking.
Cognitive symptoms affect the memory or thinking process. People with Schizophrenia may have difficulty focusing, gathering their thoughts and struggle to remember things. The working memory where newly learned information is stored for immediate use is a specific area of memory affected.
There are three common causes of Schizophrenia, genetics, environment and brain chemistry. Having a family history of mental illness increases a person’s chance of developing Schizophrenia. It has been found that 10% of people with a first degree relative such as a parent or sibling also have the disorder. It is possible also to have the disorder without these factors. There is not one specific gene that appears to cause the disorder, but rather a combination of different genes.
Environmental factors such as exposure to viruses, malnutrition in the womb, and complications during delivery also increase the risk of developing Schizophrenia. Another environmental factor is substance abuse. The use of certain drugs such as marijuana during the teen and young adult years can play a role in the development.
Issues with brain chemistry can also play a role in the development of Schizophrenia. The chemistry of the brain can be affected by imbalances of the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate. These neurotransmitters are what aid in the communication between brain cells.
There are different forms of treatment available to help treat Schizophrenia. Currently there is no known cause for the disorder. Frequently people with schizophrenia are unaware they have it. The term for this is anosognosia and can potentially make treatment more difficult.
Antipsychotic medications are used to help reduce symptoms and prevent future relapses. They are typically taken daily as a pill or liquid, but sometimes received via injections once or twice a month.
Psychological treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy and supportive psychotherapy are another method used by Psychologist. They are can be used alone or in conjunction with an antipsychotic medication. These therapies teach proper coping skills on how to handle the daily challenges of life with Schizophrenia. Developing these aids in helping patients achieve goals such as employment. With the right treatment and support most people with Schizophrenia go on to live healthy and highly productive lives.


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