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2.5 Type of car seat material
To fabricate a ventilated car seat Nylon Fabric, Faux Vinyl, PCV, Vinyl, Faux Leather, Suede and Brushed Nylon is the common material used. Each material is described briefly in section 2.5.1 to 2.5.7.
2.5.1 Nylon Fabric
Nylon is a durable, hard-wearing upholstery fabric which comes in many colours. There are plain and patterned designs and you can choose a type which best suits the interior of your vehicle. Because nylon is weaved, it is harder to tear than some fabrics. It is also very stain resistant, providing you can wash out any spills before the dry. It is also the most popular form of fabric found in most automobiles. It is available in many colours and is the least expensive form of trim for your vehicle (Willis, 2014).
2.5.2 Faux Vinyl
This is actually a vinyl which takes on the characteristics of leather or suede or other types of material. It is hard-wearing and can have the appearance and shine of soft leather or the dullness of fabric trim. Faux vinyl is a mock vinyl which emulates the real article at a fraction of the cost (Willis, 2014).
2.5.3 PCV Leather
Commonly known as soft plastic, this is a vinyl style-material that is pliable and easy to form. It stretches well and is used in lower-end models of cars and vans. It can be coloured or made in black and white, but it is notorious for being sticky to sit on during the summer. Heat has a tendency to make the upholstery sweat and the driver of the vehicle is best advised not to wear shorts in the summer if their vehicle is lined with PVC (Willis, 2014).
2.5.4 Vinyl
Easy to wipe clean, durable and hard wearing, vinyl is another coonly used material in the making of automobile upholstery. It has similar properties to PVC but vinyl can soft, hard, pliable or firm. You might be aware that old LP records were made from vinyl but, because it is used in a different capacity for upholstery, it can be as soft as velvet although it will still make the skin sweat during hot periods of weather (Willis, 2014).
2.5.5 Faux Leather
Faux leather is a very versatile material that can be made to appear like almost anything. People have covered their car seats in fake crocodile skin, fake snake’s skin and even dinosaur prints. It behaves like leather and is easy to wipe clean. Spillages can be quickly dealt with so faux leather doesn’t stain easily and is very durable (Willis, 2014).
2.5.6 Suede
Cloth-based suede fabrics are a nice choice for an automobile interior. Suede is soft to the touch and feels like brushed cotton. This automobile fabric is not used as often because it stains easily and it not as durable for many types of automobile use (Willis, 2014).
2.5.7 Brushed Nylon
Brushed nylon is soft and warm and ideal for an interior seat cover or door trim. It is a thick fabric that is usually just under a ¼ thick when used in vehicles. It seems well and is a firm, durable material which is quite hard to tear (Willis, 2014).

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2.0 Type of Event – Lecture Demonstration
As per our course requirement, we went through the process to organise a Lecture Demonstration with Richard Waygood MBE. We thought this would be more beneficial to us and to our spectators, as it was a presentation from Richard of what our demo-riders were displaying. We also ran this event for a well-known charity Horse Back UK, with all proceeds on the night being donated. Richard Waygood joined the army as a private soldier in the 90’s. He held the role of Riding Master there for seven years. In 2009, Richard received an MBE from Her Majesty the Queen for his services to equestrianism. Richard is a BE accredited trainer, is the Chef d’Equipe for the 2* European Eventing Team, and British Dressage Team. I felt very grateful that we were able to secure a place with Richard for our event.

2.1 Reflection – Personal Tribute to Event
Organising any event can sometimes seem overwhelming. That’s why it is important to have everything planned well and be organised, in order for smooth running and success of the event. At our first meeting, we sat down and discussed everybody’s job-roles prior to the event. My job roles were Chairperson for the group, and to Contact the event organiser at Hartpury College to inquire about equipment, first aiders, microphones, etc. I got in touch with some generous prize givers for our raffle and received some outstanding prizes which people were very happy with. I also took minutes of each meeting we held together, as I found this would not only help me keep on track of everything at the time, but now I can look back and understand why and how we done everything.
A chairperson is a key role on any management or volunteer committee. I had to ensure that our group worked together appropriately, that there was participation during meetings, and I also took responsibility of any inquiries the public had regarding our event. I also had responsibility to keep my tutor in the loop, meaning updates of job roles, risk assessments, and overall communication. Prior to our event, I was unsure about my role as chairperson as I had never taken leadership in a group before. I learned that I am quite good at working as a team and I enjoyed the overall organisation of the event. If I look back at my experience of the event, I have learned the importance of working not only in a group but independently. I have also learned the importance of sharing ideas and knowledge amongst my team. Which allowed me to set aside some more planning time and become more social.

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On the night of the event, I was assigned to set up the arena foyer area, where spectators would come and collect pre-paid tickets, or purchase tickets on the night. I ensured the area was inviting, tidy, and that everyone was aware of what they were doing on the night. At times, I found it difficult to rein everyone in, although I understood it was everybody’s first time organising an event including myself. I got a chance to meet some lovely people, which was a bonus and made the night run smoothly. This was a very valuable and enjoyable module and I was confident in myself that I gave the very best of my ability throughout. The experience I had of my role as chairperson will add values to me as an individual, and if in the future I extend my experience with event organisation, it showed me the values of working hard to produce positive results.

2.2 – Reflection – Group/Team Work
The first phase of our module was to organise ourselves into groups. We done so ourselves and we each gave our strengths and weaknesses to help us acquire appropriate job roles. The planning of an event requires a good working team (Slack and Parent, 2006) I am confident we had a good team, and working together in a group made me realise that event organization is fun and educational. In my experience of working with this group, I realized that there was a lot more to just organising an event. An event is more than an occasion where people come together. I felt it was an outstanding idea to donate all proceeds to our chosen charity Horse Back UK, and each member was also committed and passionate towards the charity event.
There were many things we needed to plan prior to our event. We followed guidance and policies mentioned during our module to determine different area’s of our event we were expected to cover, such as marketing and publicity, finance, volunteering, sponsorship and graphics. We agreed on ticket sale prices, although we had to discuss what our potential income would be minus expenses. Event organization requires team effort, regardless of the type of event being held. I felt the majority of our team members put a lot of effort in to our event, and each of us played the role of team leader at different stages throughout. Effective communication is vital and as a team we sometimes lacked this. It was difficult to get everyone together at once for meetings, which was important, but on the night each one of us had a role to play and I felt we were confident as a group that we held a successful event.

2.3 – Future Improvements
For our group, I found that financial consideration gave us some challenges.

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2.10. Empirical Literature Review
The study conducted by Chala (2011) indicates the Ambo town has a total of 42 kilometers length water supply networks, which includes both primary and secondary distribution pipe lines and 21 public taps, which are distributed in the town and managed by the users’ villages. Concerning water connection, only 33.42% of the total urban households have private connection. The remaining 66.58% of the urban dwellers yard connection depend on public taps and vendors for water source. These sources are used due to lack of money, shortage of water supply and unavailability of distribution lines in the nearby and too complicated procedures set by to get connection.

Kebede (2015) finding concerning the source of water is access to the water supply from chose sources, 98 (73.7%) of the respondents have no access to the pipelined water connection and 99 (74.4%) of the respondents have not accessed developed daily taped water for their supply of water consumption. The average water demands of respondents have demand is greater than supply of water in the town.

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The study conducted by Wonduante (2013) indicates water supply of adequate quantity and acceptable quality is one of the basic needs of human beings, but the provision of potable water in Gondar town is inefficient. The situation is getting worse due to the population growth and spatial expansion of the town which outstripped its ability to supply sufficient water for its inhabitants. The existing sources of potable water are both surface and ground water which reach the customers or end users through Private meter connection and public water points. However, since the sources decrease in amount, especially during peak dry season, the amount of production is not adequate even for those who have access to it. The amount of production is also further reduced by less well working hours, limited number of boreholes and through losses including mechanical, frictional and head losses and leakage. Moreover, the state of water supply in the town in terms of coverage both in spatial and population, reliability, accessibility, and sustainability is not at the required standard. The major constraints of distribution systems identified are low density of pipeline networks, limited number of public water points and their unfair distribution, inadequate pressure in the pipe and the absence of well prepared maps for distribution pipelines. As a result, water consumption is affected in the town due to these physical factors and socioeconomic factors such as population growth, household income and size that affected their waters consumption.

Chala (2011) study recognizes potable water supply coverage to urban dwellers is the main concern of government in these days and also major issue in the achievement of MDGs. Hence, Ethiopian Government 2010 MDGs report stated that national urban water coverage was 91.5 percent. In the same year, Oromia Water Resource Management Bureau reported that, regional urban water coverage reached 84.2 percent. However, the study result indicated that, the existing water supply coverage of Ambo town is 40.9 percent, which is below half of both the national and regional reports.

Meseret (2012) study indicates the per capita water consumption has a negative relationship with household size both from urban and rural areas. Besides that queuing time negatively correlate with per capita consumption in urban areas. There is a positive relationship between waiting time, distance, adequacy and quality of water source for the consumption of households from unimproved sources in rural areas. In contrast queuing time and income were the main factors resulting households reluctance to collect water from improved sources in the urban areas. This leads to vulnerability of the households to water borne diseases. As a result of this it is better to reduce the queuing time by installing additional water supply points. Because the time devoted for water collection losses the possibility of spending on other productive activities. To understand the people’s perception on the quality of their water sources of both improved and unimproved, it is evident that people have the capacity to identify the quality of their water through test, odor and color. Furthermore test was the main indicator of water quality in the study area in which 64% of the respondents measure the quality of the source.

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2.6 GENOME PLASTICITY AND EVOLUTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI
Like all life forms, new strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from Salmonella. E. coli K-12 and E. coli B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes. Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world. (Futadar et al., 2005). More virulent strains, such as O157:H7, cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised.
The genera Escherichia and Salmonella diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), which coincides with the divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles. (Wang et al., 2009). This was followed by a split of an Escherichia ancestor into five species (E. albertii, E. coli, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris). The last E. coli ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.
The long-term evolution experiments using E. coli, begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of genome evolution over more than 65,000 generations in the laboratory. For instance, E. coli typically do not have the ability to grow aerobically with citrate as a carbon source, which is used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate E. coli from other, closely, related bacteria such as Salmonella. In this experiment, one population of E. coli unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate, a major evolutionary shift with some hallmarks of microbial speciation.
2.7 INCUBATION PERIOD
The time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the “incubation period”. The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average of 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.

2.7.1 DISCOVERY OF ANTIBIOTICS
• History of antibiotics – 1
19th century:Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch
• History of antibiotics – 2
Plant extracts
– Quinine (against malaria)
– Ipecacuanha root (emetic, e.g. in dysentery)
Toxic metals
– Mercury (against syphilis)
– Arsenic (Atoxyl, against Trypanosoma)
• Dyes
– Trypan Blue (Ehrlich)
– Prontosil (azo-dye, Domagk, 1936)
• History of antibiotics – 3
Paul Ehrlich
• started science of chemotherapy
• Systematic chemical modifications
(“Magic Bullet”) no. 606 compound = Salvarsan (1910)
• Selective toxicity.
• Developed the Chemotherapeutic Index
• History of antibiotics – 4
Penicillin- the first antibiotic – 1928• Alexander Fleming observed the
killing of staphylococci by a fungus (Penicillium notatum)
• observed by others – never exploited
• Florey & Chain purified it by freeze-drying (1940) – Nobel prize 1945
• First used in a patient: 1942
• World War II: penicillin saved 12-15% of lives
• History of antibiotics – 5
Selman Waksman – Streptomycin (1943), was the first scientist who discovered antibiotic active against all Gram-negatives for examples; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
– Most severe infections were caused by Gram-negatives and Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, extracted from Streptomyces – extracted from Streptomyces
– 20 other antibiotics include. neomycin, actinomycin
2.8 CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBIOTICS
According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term Antibiotics encompasses medicines (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibit the growth of or destroys microorganisms. Antibiotics are naturally occurring substances that exhibit inhibitory properties towards microbial growth at high concentrations. (Zaffiri, et al., 2012).
-Antibiotics are selective in their effect on different microorganisms, being specific in their action not only against genera and species but even against strains and individual cells. Some of these agents act mainly on gram-positive bacteria, while others inhibit only gram-negative ones.
-Some antibiotics are produced by some organism, from different strains of penicillin.
-Bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic which enable them to developed resistance after contact, for several periods.

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2.9 ROLE OF ANTIBIOTICS
Based on the clinical use of antibiotics, it may appear that these compounds play a similar role as microbial weapons in nature, yet this seems unlikely due to the fact that the concentrations used in the clinical setting are significantly higher than that produced in nature (Fajardo et al., 2008). Due to experimental evidence, it makes more sense to see antibiotics as small, secreted molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication within microbial communities.
(Martinez, 2008). Diverse Studies have been conducted in which different antibiotics and antibiotic-like structures were administered to different bacterial species at levels below the compounds minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). (Fajardo et al., 2008). that was

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