1.What is the difference between HIV and AIDS?HIV attacks and destroys the infection-fighting cells. The loss of these cells makes it difficult for the body to fight infections and diseases. Without treatment, HIV can gradually destroy the immune system and advance to AIDS.2. List and explain the major routes of HIV transmission.HIV is spread through contact with bodily fluids, sex, or sharing drug equipment with a person with HIV. This can spread to other people and cause their body to malfunction. When breast feeding, children can become infected with HIV and this will cause long term problems for the child or if the disease is severe, it could even kill the child. 3. What does seropositive mean and how is a person tested for HIV?Seropositive is when you get a positive result that there are viruses in the bodily fluids. People can be tested by taking tests such as NAT, antigen/antibody test, laboratory-based antibody screening tests, rapid antibody screening test, and oral fluid antibody self-tests.4. What are some symptoms associated with acute phase HIV infection? What are the symptoms of AIDS?HIV acute phase: people develop flu-like symptoms such as: fever, swollen glands, sore throat, rash, muscle and joint aches and pains, and headaches.AIDS: death, opportunistic infections, weight loss, pneumonia, memory loss, other neurological disordersPart 21.What is meant by virus load? Draw a graph of a typical virus load profile for an HIV-infected individual.Virus load is the amount of HIV in your blood. 2. Based on the HIV life cycle, propose potential anti-HIV treatment targets. Which targets would be most effective in blocking HIV infection? Which targets would be least effective?The most effective target: When the HIV uses a receptor to bind to T cells. Stopping the binding process will eventually block the infection from getting inside. The least effective target: When HIV proteins are synthesized in the cell and go out of the cell to duplicate. At this moment, it will already be too late to stop the virus from attacking, since it has already positioned itself in the body.3. Propose biological and immunological reasons for why Magic Johnson’s viral load levels are undetectable. Graph your ideas as a function of time, beginning with his initial infection through the present day. Since Magic Johnson’s virus load is undetectable, is he cured of HIV? Support your answer with biological reasons.He can’t be cured of HIV. His viral load levels are undetectable because the cell already has the DNA/RNA of the HIV virus, even if the virus itself is gone. This disappearance of the viruses are caused by the temporary usage of antibodies and other killer cells, but because the DNA/RNA of the virus is still in the cell, this can cause the DNA/RNA to make new HIV viruses and duplicate itself, making Magic unable to be cured. 4. What is the advantage of using multiple targets during HAART?HAART is a combination of multiple drugs, blocking multiple targets in HIV. Lamivudine and zidovudine are the drugs used, which are both nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. These drugs stop the virus protective covering from degrading and releasing RNA strands into the genome and it uses multiple targets to stop HIV from growing bigger and cloning itself. 5. Do you agree with the statement “The drugs he takes are available to everyone”? What are some factors that might make this an overstatement?I disagree with the statement because people living in developing countries are able to afford the medicine, but people who live in third world countries don’t have enough resources and money to buy these medications. This fact contradicts the statement that “The drugs he takes are available to everyone.” 6. As a spokesperson for GlaxoSmithKline, what impact will Magic Johnson have on how HIV- positive people are viewed? What influence will he have on the future of GlaxoSmithKline? On other HIV-positive African-Americans? What ethical aspects can you think of associated with using Johnson as a spokesperson by a pharmaceutical company such as GlaxoSmithKline?HIV/AIDS will be the most talked about topic because of celebrities like Magic Johnson. Because he is in every commercial and on every billboard, the company will get many profits out of this, in that people will believe that this product was actually used by Magic Johnson himself. It would go to the point where people won’t care about the medication but only that a famous celebrity used it. He will also stand as a “beacon of hope” for people who are HIV-positive, particularly for African-Americans who are suffering with the same problem. Some ethical aspects would be when HIV- positive people would go and buy this product to help themselves after asking their doctor. If a doctor prescribes this drug, then it is obviously safe to use, no matter who is endorsing the product.