1.1 the employment contract and relationships; communication with

1.1 Internal and external factors that influence employee relations

Following the numerous studies and researches around the employee relations like the CIPD Change agenda (2005) , there is still no set definition for Employee Relations.
But the majority of views agree that Employee Relations is concerned with “managing the employment contract and relationships; communication with employees; promoting retention, involvement and engagement; collective processes of negotiation and consultation.”(1)
In a nutshell, Employee Relations is focusing in preventing and managing issues that arise in the work place.

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The organisational culture plays an important role on how employees perform their duties, on how they interact with customers, suppliers, and management and team colleagues. Regardless of the type of organisational culture, it is important that employee beliefs and values to be aligned with the business objective in order to avoid arising conflicts and maintain increased productivity.
For example if an employee or more do not believe in the company ethos and they only come to work for financial gaining’s, it is very likely that they will not perform to highest standards, their level of morale will be low and conflicts will arise.
As it is down to the managers to ensure that task are completed effectively, it is very important that the management style it is aligned to the company culture, in order to ensure a positive working environment.

The economy is another factor that has a huge impact on the employee relations. For example if the economic climate is going through a down fall, the unemployment level will rise, which can create fear and anxiety among employees for losing their jobs. The anxiety will lead to lower performance level, therefore decreasing the productivity level.
Or the salary level can freeze or be decreased, for financial reasons, which again will have a direct impact on the employee morale and performance.
For example the majority of Investment Banks , have proceed with a 10% rate cut for all external contractors, in December 2014 , for unlimited period of time, due economic reasons. That led to 10% of the external population resigning and conflicts arising between permanent members of staff and external contractors.

‘”Committed, visible and involved senior leaders who communicate frequently and believably on a range of business and organisational issues”,(2) it is core component in ensuring workforce engagement, as it was shown by a survey run by Tower Perrin.
This emphasizes the huge change that has taken place, in the way communication should be done, in order to get the desired results. If in the past the manager role was to give directive on how and what things needed to be done, nowadays it is imperative to have a two-way process communication. Delivering a message, it has no impact on the audience, if this is not fully understood and agreed. Therefore it is important that managers have a collaborative communication process and empower their employees. If employees feel that they are part of the decision and they agree on the impact of the decision will have on their roles, the chances of them getting fully committed of delivering are very high, as they will feel valued and that will led to increased performance.

Technology is evolving very rapidly and majority of companies, tend to lean more towards adopting new technological systems to reduce cost and increase profits.
The impact of technology on employee relations can be negative at times.
An example is Santander Bank, who announced to close down 139 branches in the next 6 months, replacing the face to face services, with online banking access and telephone banking. This decision not only affected customers, but employees as well, as this will result in over 1000 employees losing their jobs.
Also the implementation of new technological system can create conflicts and demonization among employees, if it is not managed properly and if full support and training is not offered, in order to accommodate the change taking place.

1.2Types of employment status

When it comes to employment status, it is very important to determine the type of employment, in order to identify the employee rights and employer responsibilities, as these vary. The employment contract is it an agreement between employee and employer, that outlines the responsibilities, rights, duties and working conditions.

There are three main employment status types:

1. Employee- is any person that works under a contract of employment, whether it is in writing or not.
2. Workers-even though from a legal point of view the term worker includes employees as well, it used to refer to individuals who offer services or perform work under a contract for a reward (i.e money, benefits) , aren’t doing work as part of their limited company and may have limited rights to send somebody else to do the work. Workers have same rights as employees, excluding the following: minimum notice period, protection against unfair dismissal, right to request flexible working, statutory redundancy pay and time off for emergencies
3. Self-employed – is an individual who run his own business, managing costs, supplying materials and tools for the completion of the job .They responsible for paying their own taxes and National contributions, can decide when and how the work needs to be done and can hire someone else to do the work.

Permanent employees have the responsibility to:
work all hours agreed, unless they are on leave
cannot send somebody else to do their work
must work under management supervision at all times following guidelines on how work should carried out and to set time scales
work at the business’s premises or at an address specified by the business
carry out task with equipment and tools provided by the employer
follow the disciplinary an grievances procedures set by the company
all their income Tax and National Contribution are deducted from their salary ,by the employer

When it comes to rights, employees have the following rights according to law, some being subject to a specific period of continuous employment (3):

Statutory Sick Pay
Entitled to minim National Wage
Are protected against unlawful deduction from their pay
Statutory minimum length of rest breaks
Not work more than 48 hours per week, unless they choose to opt out of this right
Protection against discrimination and for whistleblowing
Maternity, paternity and adoption leave and pay
Minimum notice period , if their contract will be terminated by the employer
Protection against unfair dismissal
The right to request flexible hours
Time off for emergencies
Statutory Redundancy Pay
The right to be TUPED, etc

Temporary term is used for pat-time employees, casual workers, agency staff that do a job for a specific number of days, weeks or months.(4)

.In the case of agency workers they have an employment contract or an agreement with the agency and not the end user (the company they are placed with).
Before 12 weeks of continuous service their rights are quite limited compared with permanent employees, but they are entitled to collective facilities and have access to job vacancies, same as permanent members of staff.
After 12 weeks of service they have the same right as permanent employees, except the right to redundancy or to claim unfair dismissal.

Fixed-term contractors are employed by the company, not through an agency , but their employment contract has got an end date.
In term of their right, they have the same rights as permanent employees, except the right to redundancy pay , before 2 years of continuous service.
If their contract is not renewed, the employer does not need to give any notice and it is considered as a dismissal. But in the case where the employer desires to end the contract before the end, than a notice period should be served and a fair reason why this has happened.
After 4 years of continuous service , the fixed-term contractor will automatically become a permanent employee, unless there is a good business rationale , why this should not happen.(5)

1.3 The importance of employment status

As mentioned above establishing the employment status it is important in order to identify the rights and responsibilities of the employee and to comply with the relevant legislation that regulates that particular employment status.
For example the Agency Workers Regulations 2010, only applies to agency workers that are placed on a temporary basis and to the ones that have an indefinite period of time. An example of the case in Moran and others v Ideal Cleaning Services Ltd.(6)
When it comes to self-employed status, it is very important to establish this status , as they are not cover by the employment law , therefore cannot make claims in an Employment Tribunal. But they are protected against Health and Safety regulations.

2.1The importance of work life balance and legislation that influence it

The work-life balances it important not only to meet the legal requirements, but also it benefits the employers and employees. For example the companies that have well established policies around work-life balance, have a higher productivity, reduced absenteeism, increased flexibility and customer service, due to raised morale, motivation commitment and engagement from their employees.
The working hours, holiday entitlement, rest breaks and night working rights , are regulated by the Working Time Regulation 1998 and Eu Working directive. This regulation was set out to protect employees and employers , by avoiding accidents, unauthorized absenteeism, employees getting exhausted, etc.
According to the Working time Regulation 1998, employees are entitled to:
– work maximum 48 hours per week, unless they opt out.
– minimum of 5.6 weeks paid leave a year , which should not be more that 28 days
When it comes to night workers , the Working Time Regulation, stipulates that they should not “exceed an average of eight hours in each 24 hour period, averaged over 17 weeks”
Opposed to day time workers, the night workers do not have the option to opt out.
Rest Breaks are also regulated by the Working Time Regulation and it states that workers are entitled to a minimum 20 min. Rest break in each shift, lasting more than six hours and11 hours of consecutive rest between shifts each day.(7)

2.2Legal support for employees as a family member

There different legislation acts the protect and offer support to family members such as:
-The Maternity and Parental Leave Regulations 1999(8)
– Employment Rights Act 1996;
– The Maternity and Adoption Leave (Curtailment of Statutory Rights to Leave) Regulations 2014 (9)
-The Equality Act 2010
-The Shared Parental Leave Regulations 2014

According to the Maternity and Parental Leave Regulation, most pregnant women are entitled to statutory maternity leave up to 52 weeks, are entitled to SMP(statutory maternity pay), have the right to return to the same job, on the same terms and conditions. In regards to new fathers, they are entitled to one or two weeks of paternity leave and statutory paternity pay,as long as they have worked for a longer period of time.
In case of adoption , both parents can claim time off, but only one of them can claim Adoption leave and the other one can claim maternity or paternity leave.
The Shared Parental Leave Regulation 2014, will come into force in 2015 and give the option parents to share the parental leaves in three block.(10)
Dependants are classed those who leave in the same household as family member. In case of emergencies, employees have the right to request time off , to care for dependants.
The employer might choose to pay for the time off, but they are not obliged to do so. (11,12)

2.3The importance of equality pay

According to the Equality Act 2010, man and women doing the same work should have equal working terms such as basic pay, overtime rates, performance related benefits, hours of work, access to pension schemes, annual leave entitlement.(13)
Even though the Equality Act 2010 does not cover the discretionary benefits, such as offering child care assistance to women only, these are covered by the Sex discrimination Act 1975.
Offering equal pay and treating fairly all employees, has various benfits such as: helps building stronger relationships between the employer and employees, based on trust; it help avoid rising conflicts between team members, due preferential treatment, etc.
Also following the recommendations in the “Code of Practice” by the Equality Act 2010 and the Human Rights, to employers to conduct an equal pay review, the reduction in tribunal claims has seen a reduction.

2.4Legislation that protects against discrimination

According to the Equality Act 2010, which replaced the Sex Discrimination Act, Race Relations Act and other legislation relating to discrimination, there are nine protected characteristics, on which discrimination can be unlawful and these are:
Gender reassignment
Religion or belief
Sexual orientation
Marriage and civil partnership
Pregnancy and maternity

Discrimination can be :
-Direct- when a person is treated differently and worse because of one of the protected characteristics (14)
i.e If a less experienced man is offered a job , over a most experienced women
-Indirect- where there are practices and rules that apply to everyone, but the effect of these can be different for particular employees.(15)
i.e. If there is a clause in the contract stating occasional overtime required, that can be an indirect discrimination towards women who are usually carer for their children.
-Harassment-:”unwanted conduct related to relevant protected characteristics, which has the purpose or effect of violating an individual’s dignity or creating an intimidating , hostile degrading, humiliating or offensive environment for that individual” (16).
i.e Ana is repeatedly not offered the opportunity to get involved in new projects , by her line manager on the basis that she is too young and inexperienced. Ana can claim harassment against her line manager based on age discrimination.
-Victimisation- happens when an employee is badly treated , after making a claim of discrimination or is suspected to do so.
i.e Chris has made a formal complaint against his manager , because he feel he is discriminated against based on race. Although this is complaint in progress, he is constantly picked on by his manager, therefore Chris could claim victimisation.

2.5Good practice around organisational policies and psychological contract

The Psychological contract it is unwritten and it represents the mutual agreement between two parties in managing mutual expectations.
For example in our company even though we are contracted to work until 6p.m on a daily basis , in December our managing Director has offered us the opportunity to leave at 5.30 , as long as the daily tasks are completed . So the our expectation of leaving early was meet and by us ensuring that all tasks were completed , we ensured our Director expectations were meet. Therefore there was a psychological contract between us.
Even though the psychological contract it is unwritten, breaching by not meeting the expectation of one party can have negative effects on employees and employers. Such as employees might have low morale level, diminished loyalty towards the employer, resistance to changes within the company which will all lead to reduced performance.
On the other side it can create a bad reputation for the employer.

3.1The difference between fair and unfair dismissal

Termination of employment contract by an employer is classed as Dismissal.
Whether is fair or unfair, it can be established based on the procedure that was followed and the reasons.
The Fair dismissal happens in the following circumstances:(17)
Fixed-term contract has not been extended passed the end date
The employee do not have the capability to perform the work he was contracted in the first place . i.e a sales assistant has suffered a back injury , which no longer allow him to stand for long periods of time
The employee has had conduct related issues such as bad time keeping, attendance, etc
Legal restrictions .i.e. when a lorry driver has his driving license suspended
“Some other substantial reasons” – this is established by previous law cases.

The unfair dismissal claims might arise when the employee and the employer do not have the same view on the reason of dismissal or the employer has terminated the contract, by breaching it. For example the employer terminates the contract, without giving the contractual notice period.
The unfair dismissal is regulated by the The Unfair Dismissal and Statement of Reasons for Dismissal (Variation of Qualifying Period) Order 2012 (Employment Rights Act 1996); The Employment Equality (Repeal of Retirement Age Provisions) Regulations 2011; The Employment Act 2008
The unfair dismissal cases can have a negative impact on the organisation such as damaged reputation, cost and time wasted with the hearing and compensations, etc

3.2Importance of Exit Interviews

Even though there are different views on the importance of Exit Interviews, these are conducted to obtain feedback from employees.
If the exit interviews are conducted and documented properly, it can give useful information to help companies understand why employees are leaving, if there are any management issues that need to be looked at, about working environment, etc.
In order to obtain the honest answers specialist’s advice for the interview to be conducted anywhere 1 month up to a year after the employee has left. As they might be holding back relevant information, fearing for a bad reference.
With the results obtained from the interview , the managers should identify what needs to change or improve and do everything within their control to ensure changes are taking place in order to improve working condition and for employees and improve retention.(20)

3.3Managing redundancies

Redundancies happen when there is going to be a :
A cessations of business
A cessation of business at the employee’s site
A reduction or cessation of work.

The legislation acts that regulate redundancies are Employment Rights Act 1996 s139 and TULR Act s195.
When it comes to redundancies there are specific process and rules that need to be followed.
For companies that have between 20 and 100 employees there is the duty to give 30 days notice to the Secretary of State and for more than 100 employees the notice period is 45 days under the TULR Act(18)
Consultations should also take place where the employees or their Union representative can come up with solutions on how avoid redundancies. One of these can be Recruitment freeze, which will force the employer to redeploy employees to other departments, in case the business does not cease completely.
Failure to consult about proposed redundancies, make lead to complaints to an employment tribunal.

When an employer wishes to dismiss employees on the grounds of redundancy they must:
-send a letter to the employee informing them of the situation and inviting them for discussions
-Hold a meeting with the employee regarding the redundancy and allow him to be accompanied, also informing him that he has the right to an appeal.
-hold an appeal meeting.

Selection criteria for redundancies must be fair, objective and consistent, based on skills or experience, attendance or disciplinary record, etc otherwise it can considered unfair dismissal.

Employers should also consider ways of supporting employees with job seeking. Larger companies might consider counselling services for their employees like financial advice, guidance on attending interviews, etc.

In the case of severance pay has been agreed the employer needs to inform the employees on how this is calculated how commission, overtime payments, accrued holiday pay and time off in lieu not taken will be paid. (19)

Redundancies can have a negative impact on employees and employers.
For example for employees can be a very emotional period and a recent survey has found that 65% percent of those going through redundancy has an increased stress level. Also the motivation and morale level can be very low among the remaining employees.
Also the const encountered by the company on the redundancy payments, mangers time dealing with the redundancies etc can have a negative impact on the employer.


Nowadays, workplace stress is increasingly recognized as a contributing factor to employee absence, turnover and poor performance. It has been widely recognized as a major managerial and economic issue (Miller et al., 1990). There are many factors that can contribute to this matter such as contribution among workers, environment of workplace, and also behaviour or characteristic of co-workers. When we are too stress at our workplace, our interest of doing our job will disappear. We will lost our tendency to finish our job before the due date.

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Furthermore management attitudes, cultures and styles have been found to have significant impact on levels of stress (Mikkelsen et al., 2000). If the management have issue toward their workers, problem will arise. As we can see, culture in an environment also can be a huge impact pf employee’s effectiveness and their job performance. If the culture of an organization is stressful and the employee is not getting along well with each other, it could affect the organization’s growth. Initiatives aimed at reducing and preventing stress that have focused on
improvements to the work and organizational environments seem to have met some success (Clarke, 2000; Cox and Cox, 1991, 1996; Cox and Flin, 1998).

Besides, Valle and Witt (2001) found that negative perceptions of organizational effectiveness were strongly related to job dissatisfaction among individuals who perceive low levels of teamwork. If employee have poor job performance, it could affect the management also. This is because it would be hard to train employee who had already have negative perceptions towards organization’s effectiveness.

In this case study, they make a several questions that need to be answer by employee of two department of a medium size company of ICT in Australia. The two department is Enterprise Department and Service Department. The data was part of an employee opinion survey conducted in October 2002.

2. Methodology

Uses survey data from a medium size company in the ICT industry operating in Australia. There were 397 respondents to the survey.

3. Issue In Workplace

There are several issue that happens in workplace such as difficulty to have communication with manager, level of job satisfaction and stress and cooperation. This issue can cause stress in the workplace. As we can see, stress and cooperation are related and it is not clear where they should fit in overall framework. This issue also are the strong factor that indicates that job satisfaction, communication and the organizational contributors to workplace stress.

In this case study, there are 5 factors that leads to the impact of job satisfaction, communication and culture such as
1) Communication with manager
2) Overall job satisfaction
3) Perceived positiveness of company culture
4) Clarity of organizations objective
5) Reduced stress and increase cooperation

But the most factor that have different score is
1) Communication with manager
2) Overall job satisfaction
3) Reduced stress and increase cooperation

The fact that this 3 factor became the most important factor is because there are different score for this 3 factor from the two department. The Services department employees appear to be rating communication with managers, job satisfaction and the degree of cooperation and reduced stress in a much favorable way than their counterparts in the Enterprise department. Thus, one would assume that cooperation is much more encourage in the former department. The lack of significant differences across the two departments on ”perceived positiveness of the organization” and ”clarity of the organization objectives” is understandable and in fact reinforces an important point. We have to remember that this two department had different management styles, goals and backgrounds. All of this may contribute to the observed differences between their employee’s score.

i) Communication with manager

One of the most important factor that leads to stress in workplace is communication with manager. Many employee find that it is difficult to have communication with manager. This is because some of manager is not easy to approach. Some of them are practising As a manager, they should spend their time communicate with their employee. They must heard their employee’s concern, trouble at work and do some catch up with employee about project that they are working on. If a manager show their concern to employee, employee will feel they are appreciated by manager and eager to work harder. Manager should explain to employee about the goal of company and ensure that their employee are understand the goal. Manager also should be able to translating the company goal into functional and individual goals. This is because with this way, employee should be able to improve themselves and also their working performance.

In this case study, they make analysis based on two department such as Enterprise Department and Service Department. The result of this two department are different based on their employee answer on a questionnaire. In this issue, the Enterprise department have scored 21.76 meanwhile the Services Department have score 20.62. The Service Department employees appear to be rating communication with managers, job satisfaction and the degree of cooperation and reduced stress in a much favorable way than their counterparts in the
Enterprise department. It shows that Service Department have better communication with their manager. We can assure that several question such as “my manager develops and encourage a sense of purpose and unity in our team”, “my manager sets clear objectives, outlining requirement and expectation” and “my manager motivates team members to set and achieve high performance standard” have been the top three with the high score based on employee’s selection.

Because employees assume that support should just happen; lack of it would cause them to experience isolation, frustration and therefore stress (Miller et al., 1990). Manager have to coaching and developing existing employees so that they could improve themselves. If manager shows them the eagerness to train them, employee would be more enthusiasm improving their skills. Furthermore, some of manager have been firm and not friendly towards their employee. Managers have put a barrier so that they would not be friendly with employee. This kind of manager tend to have employee that did not have clear goal about their company mission and vision, dealing about performance problems and termination.

As we can see, we can linked a that a manager based on their score is leader who have drive traits of personality. This manager must have achievement, sense of responsibility, ambition, energy, tenacity and initiative traits. We also can assure that their manager have leadership behaviour focus such as task orientations leader. This leader have personality like setting performance goals, planning and scheduling work, coordinating activities, giving directions, setting standards, providing resources, and supervising performance. We can see this as we go through questions in this case study.

ii) Job Satisfaction

For many years, both scholars and practitioners have recognized that cooperation is crucial to the success of organizations (Chen et al., 1998; Jones and George, 1998; Olson et al., 2001). Job satisfaction is important to employee. Based on this case study, it shows that positive job satisfaction most likely to affect stress reduction in the Enterprise Department. In contrast, employees in the Services department are more likely to experience reduced stress as the resultant of positive company culture. The differences between the two departments, in terms of their reward systems, seem to support this finding. The Enterprise Department employees, with a relatively less advantageous reward system, are more likely to respond to job-related characteristics in experiencing levels of stress. In contrast, Services Department employees, with greater concerns for the overall company culture, are more likely to respond to cultural determinants in experiencing stress levels.

iii) Reduced stress and increase cooperation

Stress is not always bad. A little bit of stress can help us to stay focused, energetic and also be able to meet new challenges in the workplace. It is what keeps you on your toes during a presentation or alert to prevent accidents or costly mistakes. But in today’s hectic world, the workplace too often seems like an emotional roller coaster. Long hours, tight deadlines and ever-increasing demands can leave you feeling worried, drained, and overwhelmed. When stress exceeds your ability to cope, it stops being helpful and starts causing damage to your mind and body as well as to your job satisfaction. It can be bad for our reputation at work. It might be a factor that we did not want to do our job and end up we did not do our job properly. We always think that as long as we finished our task, the job is done. However, we did not do the job full heartedly.

Cooperation among workers are the most important thing in organisation. This is because we need a harmony and peaceful environment to work with them. If we do not have a good communication with another workers, we could not enhance a perfect teamwork. Thus, our job would be a mess. When we do not have a good relationship with our colleagues, it could lead to stress. This is because stress and cooperation are somehow related.

In this case study, it stated that having regular meeting could help with discussing customer problems and came out with solutions. But the most important thing is while having regular meeting to overcome customer’s problem, it has led to have greater job satisfaction and stress reduction. In addition these meetings clearly provide the opportunity for increased communication with both managers and the team members of other competency groups, possibly leading to better team cooperation. It also stated in this case study that it have be an increased understanding of each person and their role would be expected to assist cooperation.

4. Recommendation
The first recommendations is managers should make environment friendly space towards workers. In an organization or company, they should have a relax space for employee. For example is Fashion Valet company. They have an open space which is employee can hung out together, make a small meetings and also brainstorming ideas together. The space felt so lively so that employee felt safe and have eagerness to work hard. If a company have a place like this, they will make employee felt at home. They heart will be filled with love toward their job, teammates, colleague and company. They would feel to work hard and love their job so much. A bright environment office space will make employee feel free to express their ideas and feeling. It would lead to employee’s competency.
The next recommendation is individual training. Training is important in a company. This is because we have to glaze our workers potential. They have to be trained so they are keep on track and also to ensure their effectiveness toward their job. Based on this case study, there are many votes on “there are sufficient opportunities for me to receive training and development that helps me be more effective in my current job” questions. This shows that some of the employee would seek for training. This is because with training, they would know what they are lacking, which part of their job that they need to improve and also it help them to build up their sale esteem. This is because while training, they could meet many people and they could polish their skills in communicate with other people and also their soft skills. They could shares their experiences and also idea. This is a good opportunity for a company to have a training for their employee so they could have a good and skilled employee.

The last recommendation is having a family day. I recommend that all company should have their own family day. For example, the family day would be held at a beach and also a park. If a company is going to have a family day, they should choose a place with open space and big. Beach is a good example because they could play some game, have a barbeque and also relaxing and mingling together a long beach’s breeze. It is a good chance for all employee to know other colleagues well as well as their family. They could feel like a family. It is also a good opportunity for managers or top management to be friendly toward their workers. Manager are able to know the inner side of their employee. They would know a little bit of their employee real personality because maybe at office, their employee have to stick to formality and not being their self. It also a good opportunity for workers to know their managers well.
5. Conclusion

In conclusion, work-related stress is indeed an important phenomenon in organizations and is increasingly recognized as a contributing factor to employee absence, turnover and poor performance (de Croon et al., 2004). The causes of stress are multiple and pertain to an array of individual and organizational characteristics (Cooper et al., 2001). As a manager, we must concern about our employee in order to have a great employee. If a manager does not concern about their employee, they will felt like experience isolation, frustration and stress will arise. As a manager, they should avoid this matter.

Furthermore, in order to have great communication between manager and employee, both parties should be more considerate and respect toward each other. This could make a harmony environment at workplace. Besides, there are several issue that happens in workplace such as difficulty to have communication with manager, level of job satisfaction and stress and cooperation. This issue can cause stress in the workplace. As we can see, stress and cooperation are related and it is not clear where they should fit in overall framework. This issue also are the strong factor that indicates that job satisfaction, communication and the organizational contributors to workplace stress.

However, in order to make win-win situation between managers and employee, they should have some time together off work such as potluck party and also having a company’s family day. This could ensure the good relationship between manager and workers and also between employee and their colleague.

6. Reference

Rachid Zeffane, Dominic McLoughlin, (2006) “Cooperation and stress: Exploring the differential impact of job satisfaction, communication and culture”, Management Research News, Vol. 29 Issue: 10, pp.618-631

1.1. outline the anatomy and physiology of the human body in relation to the importance of correct moving and positioning of individuals
The human body is a delicate system and can be damaged easily with incorrect moving and handling. The musculoskeletal system is what keeps our bodies together and allows us to move. The human body is made from our bones which have joints that allow us to move a given range of motion, these joints are held tighter by our muscles, tendons and ligaments. For us to be able to move our muscles must contract (shorten), when doing so they pull on the tendons and bones to which they are attached allowing for movement. If you move an individual suddenly or move a joint beyond its range of motion, you risk damaging an individual by either pulling their muscles, tearing their tendons or ligaments and possibly dislocating their joints. If you are incorrectly moving an individual for example by dragging them under the armpits up the bed, you can cause damage by over stretching the joints and in turn straining the ligaments. If you want to roll an individual over by pulling at their arms or hands you can cause an individual’s bones to fracture. If you are using the incorrect equipment such as the wrong size sling for an individual, the individual could fall from the hoist and end up with various broken bones and bruising. If you do position an individual effectively or move an individual often enough you could cause damage to nerve fibres, which send impulses to enable the muscles to relax and contract or cause the individual to develop pressure sores.
1.2. describe the impact of specific conditions on the correct movement and positioning of an individual
Any individual who has a hearing or sight impairment may need extra support when moving, you may need to make physical gestures or to spend a bit more time explaining to the individual where it is they are going to keep them calm when moving. An individual with dementia may have little understanding of what you are saying they may need you to repeat what you are saying or you to show them what you are going to do before you do it. An individual who has had a stroke or has any sort of muscular atrophy may have limbs that are weaker than others, which must be considered when weight bearing and moving an individual to avoid putting too much pressure on the weaker parts of the body. These individuals are also more at risk of nerve damage and pressure sores as they don’t have a sensation in the damaged parts of their bodies and so therefore can’t feel whether they are doing damage to these areas by sitting on them or getting them trapped somewhere. An individual with arthritis will need extra care, attention and to only be moved as much as their joints will allow to reduce the chance of discomfort and pain for the individual.
2.1. describe how current legislation and agreed ways of working affect working practises related to moving and positioning individuals
The current legislation related to moving and handling includes the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations, The Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations and The Manual Handling Operations. These legislations mean that all staff must be trained in the moving and positioning of individuals. The correct lifting equipment that is safe to use and maintained must also be provided by the employer, and staff need to have training to use it. There must also be risk assessments in place, to assess the risks for moving individuals, which must be followed and reviewed accordingly. Staff must also not put themselves or others at risk and report any hazards or risks that they see. Agreed ways of working also means that there should be polices and procedures in place regarding moving and handling. Staff must also have the correct training, supervision, a clear understanding of individual’s needs/equipment being used and have read and understood all policies and procedures within the workplace.
2.2. Describe what health and safety factors need to be taken into account when moving and positioning individuals and any equipment used to do this
When moving individuals, I must consider health and safety factors such as adhering to all policies and procedures within my workplace, making sure that risk assessments are in place for the moving of each individual and that I am following the correct procedures written within them. It is my responsibility to look after the individual, myself and others when adhering to my health and safety obligations. I must ensure that when I am transferring an individual I have considered whether the individual is safe to move, if not I must not make the move, ensuring that I have given them the correct reassurance and that the individuals arms are safe during the manoeuvre. I must ensure that the individual is in the correct sling and hoist, stated for them, and that the hoist is in working order with the safety check in date and fully charged. The sling must not be broken, the correct size for the individual and belongs to the individual which it is being used for. I must ensure that the environment is safe before beginning the manoeuvre (no rugs, lamps, bed wires in the way) and that there is enough space to do the manoeuvre in. I must always ensure that I have gained consent from the individual before I make the move and do not rush the manoeuvre, ensuring that the individual is safe and comfortable throughout. I must ensure that any equipment used is cleaned and stored safely after the manoeuvre. I must ensure that I am wearing the correct clothing and footwear (no sandals or flipflops and nothing that can get caught in the equipment or on the individual) and that I have followed the correct hand washing techniques before and after and that I am wearing the correct PPE during the manoeuvre. I must also ensure that there are the correct amount of staff doing the manoeuvre and that I am not putting any individual in danger by doing it on my own. I must always ensure that I have the correct and up-to-date training before using any equipment or moving and positioning any individuals.
3.4. Describe actions to take in relation to identified risks
The actions to take in relation to identified risks are firstly identifying the risks, then you must decide what actions must be taken to prevent any injuries or accidents. You must draw up an action plan of how to manage these risks and re-evaluate the risks regularly once the action plan is in place. For example, if an individual is at risk of falls you must put into action procedures to prevent the risks such as encouraging the individual to ring the bell when they wish to walk somewhere so that they can have someone to support them during the manoeuvre but if an individual doesn’t have the capacity to ring the bell or they choice not to, the risk could still be there. You must also check if the current walking aid they are using is still appropriate for them if they are using a stick or no walking aid could that be the reason the individual keeps falling? You must make sure that the individual has the appropriate walking aid maybe this individual needs a frame now rather than just a stick. Or maybe the individual keeps falling over because of the furniture in their rooms maybe there is a loose piece of carpet or a slope to floor or some loose wiring which keeps making the individual trip, you must report your findings to the appropriate person’s and rectify the problem. The next step would be to put in a sensor mat so when the individual begins to move the mat will turn on and the care staff will be alerted so that they can go and check on the individual. Or if the individual is likely to fall out of bed but doesn’t want side rails there should be a crash mat put in place possibly with a sensor mat on to alert staff to when an individual has fallen out of bed. If you notice an improvement after following the action plan then it is obvious that the actions taken have limited the risks involved if not then there needs to be more actions taken to limit the risks.
3.5. Describe what action should be taken if the individual’s wishes conflict with their plan of care in relation to health and safety and their risk assessment
If the individual’s wishes conflict with their plan of care in relation to health and safety and their risk assessment, action should be taken. If the risk is because there is faulty equipment but the individual wishes for you to continue anyway, you must seek advice from a senior member of staff, explain to the individual the risks and remove the faulty equipment from the immediate area and an out of order sign must be put on it to ensure that other staff members are aware that it shouldn’t be used until it has either be fixed or replaced. If there are risks in the environment which can be moved to ensure safety, then I will do so with the individuals agreement. If an individual is unwell or there is a change in their normal behaviour you should not carry out the move as normal but instead report the risks to a senior member of staff and seek advice. If an individual asks me to move them in a way that isn’t stated in their care plan or risk assessment, I will explain to the individual why we need to do this way, why we must follow the care plan and their risk assessment, if necessary get another member of staff to reexplain why it must be done the way stated in the care plan. If the individual persists I will need to report the incident to a senior member of staff and then maybe get a senior member of staff to explain to the individual why we need to follow the care plan and that we cannot proceed with any moving until we’ve come to an agreement. I must also take active steps to record all risks, the date, time and the action that needs to be taken.
5.3. Describe the aids and equipment that may be used for moving and positioning
There are many different aids and equipment that can be used for the moving and positioning of individuals. There are different types of hoists such as standing hoists which are used for individual who cannot stand independently but still have some ability to bear weight on their legs and feet. There are also full body hoists which are used for individual who have no ability to move unaided these hoists can be mobile or fixed to the ceiling in purpose-built buildings. To attach an individual to any type of hoist you must have a sling, which come in various shapes and sizes depending on the hoist you are using and the size of the individual. There are also adapted baths which have fitted bath chairs to lift you in and out of the bath and the ability to adjust the height of the bath for the carer who is washing the individual. There are also adapted shower chairs for individual who are fully hoisted and are unsafe in normal shower chair, they allow for the carers to position and move individuals whilst dressing without the need of being re-hoisted to a different location. There are different types of transfer boards, hospitals normally use a large body sized board to assist with transfers from stretcher to beds, and there are smaller boards which can be used for quite mobile individuals to slide from seated positioned to another seated position from armchair to wheelchair. There are turntables and etac’s which can be used to help an individual to pull themselves into standing position then transferred to another place like a wheelchair. There are manual wheelchairs, which can be used to transfer individual to different locations, and specialist electric wheelchairs which individuals can use to transport themselves to different locations. There are handling belts which can be used to support individuals to walk who can support their own weight but are a little unsteady or are too large for carers to quite reach there arms around to do traditional moving and handling techniques, they shouldn’t be used for lifting. There are lifting cushions which can assist individuals to stand from chairs or the floor. There are electric reclining chair’s which can also be used in the assistance of standing individuals who have good mobility. There are bed levers, support rails and poles which can be used by an individual to move themselves in bed into an upright position. There are also walking aids such as sticks, frames, trolleys and tripods. There are also heightened toilet seats and grab rails which can make it easier for individual to stand after using the toilet independently. There is also specialist bariatric equipment for larger individual who do not fit in conventional moving and positioning equipment. There is also emergency evacuation equipment which is there to transport individuals in an emergency evacuation.
5.5. Encourage the individual’s active participation in the manoeuvre
It is incredibly important to encourage individuals to actively participate during a manoeuvre. It will promote a sense of independence and self-worth for the individual as they will feel like they are helping you and the task will become easier for the carers because they will have less work to do themselves. If you encourage an individual to help roll themselves over by grabbing onto the side of the bed and raising their own knee, the strain on the carers will be far less and the individual will feel a sense an increased self-esteem. You can then go about cleaning an individual, changing their bedding or putting a sling in place ready for hoisting. When you are hoisting if you encourage the individual to try and lift up their own legs to put the sling underneath then the manoeuvre will be easier, if you also encourage the individual to move their arms in to safe places then the manoeuvre will be far safer as the individual is far less likely to get trapped on the bars of the hoist. If you encourage an individual to support their own weight when standing by pushing themselves up on the arms of the chair and keeping there feet apart to encourage good balance and to try and stand straight this will encourage individuals to do more for themselves but also to have better movement making it far easier for the individuals which are assisting to help the manoeuvre.
5.7. Demonstrate how to report and record the activity noting when the next positioning manoeuvre is due
When entering a room and giving an individual a comfort check, you must investigate the individuals’ folder to see when they were last turned. You must take note of when they were last turned what position they were previously in and what position they need to now be positioned in. You need to then position the individual in to the next position and take note of when the individual needs to be repositioned again. You must then document clearly in the pressure ulcer management chart (turning/positioning chart) of what position you have moved the individual into, the time, date and the initials of yourself and the other carer who made the position change ensuring that you come back on time for the next position change and repeating the same prod
6.1. Describe when advice and/or assistance should be sought to move or handle an individual safely
Advice and assistance should always be sought to move and handle an individual safely. You should always ensure that you are seeking advice whenever you unsure of how to complete a task or how to use the equipment needed for the task. You must also seek advice when the individual is asking you to perform a manoeuvre that isn’t stated in their care plan for example if it is stated in the care plan that you must use a full hoist and the individual wants to walk, you must only follow what is stated in the care plan, otherwise you risk endangering yourself, your colleagues and the individual. It is important to seek advice because the care plan for that individual may have changed so that you may be able to walk them because they have been reassessed. You must always ensure that you seek assistance for any manoeuvre where it states that you need two people in the care plan. You must always seek advice when you have the wrong equipment, or the equipment is faulty as it is against the law to use incorrect or faulty equipment. You must also seek advice when you think that the individuals care plan does reflect what the individuals’ current mobility is like so that the individual can be reassessed, so no harm will come to the individual by making them do the wrong manoeuvre. You must also seek advice when you think a manoeuvre is too difficult and risks the health and safety of any individual including yourself.
6.2. Describe what sources of information are available about moving and positioning individuals
The first place to look for sources of information about the moving and positioning of individuals is in their care plan. In their care plan you will find their preferences, needs, practises to follow and the individuals risk assessment, which should have all the information that you need. There are also all the policies and procedures in a written format held within out care setting that can be referred to at any point, or searching the internet should help, our company also has online training which should hold the information you need about moving and positioning individuals. Attending training courses will also give you the correct information that you need in terms of moving and positioning individuals. If an individual is new to an establishment it may be necessary to ask the friends and family about the individual mobility as they will know the individual better than you. You can also ask your colleagues and manager for information and advice. It may also be necessary at times to work with a physiotherapist or other specialist to get advice and information about moving individuals, and to ask specific questions about any issues you have.

1. An 8th Century Greek pot decorated in the Geometric style

Artist name: Hirschfeld Painter
Title of artwork: Attic Geometric Krater
Date: 750-735 B.C
Medium: Terracotta Krater
Current location

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2. A 7t Century Greek pot decorated in the Orientalizing style.

Artist name: Polyteleia painter
Title of artwork: Terracotta Dino
Date: 630-615 B.C
Medium: Terracotta
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3.a Greek black figure pot with a scene involving Herakles

Artist name: unknown
Title of art: statue of Zeus
Date: 460 B.C
Medium: Bronze
Current location:

Artist name: unknown
Title of art:
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Artist Name: unknown
Title of the artwork: Statue of Zeus
Date:460 B.C
Medium: Bronze
Current Location:


Artist name: Praxiteles
Title of art: Aphrodite of Knidos
Date 4th century B.C
Medium: fine marble
Current location

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