1. J. Robert Oppenheimer is called ‘Father of Atomic Bomb’.
2. The first functioning atomic bomb was made during World War II.
3. The first atomic bomb was tested on July 16, 1945, by America.
4. The research and development of first atomic bomb were called Manhattan Project.
5. The first atomic bomb was tested in Alamogordo, New Mexico.
6. The bomb test was so massive that a blind woman asked her brother ‘What is this bright light?’
7. August 6th, 1945 was the day when the United States dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan.
8. The blast on Hiroshima killed around 80,000 people immediately.
9. ‘Little Boy’ was codename for bomb dropped on Hiroshima.
10. ‘Fat Man’ was the codename for bomb that was dropped on Nagasaki.
11. About 78,000 people were killed by poisoning and injuries through the blast.
12. When Japan did not surrender, then after three days the United States dropped another bomb on Nagasaki, Japan.
13. 80,000 people killed in the blast on Nagasaki.
14. The first target was Kokura but clouds and drifting smoke on Kokura resulted in a bombing on Nagasaki.
15. After seeing the destruction the atomic bomb had done, the Emperor of Japan decided to surrender and war was ended.
16. Scientists worked on the Manhattan project were afraid that the blast could ignite the Earth’s atmosphere.
17. A Japanese man survived both atomic bombings during WWII.
18. The explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were so strong that it literally evaporated people, permanently leaving their shadows on the walls and on the ground.
19. The U.S.S.R. immediately decides to make nuclear weapons and on 29th August 1949, they tested their first atomic bomb.
20. Now Russia has atomic bombs more than any other country, they have about 8,400 nuclear weapons.
21. Now the radiation level of Hiroshima and Nagasaki is normal because bombs were exploded in the air.
22. Six Ginkgo trees survived the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and are still growing.
23. In 1964, in Hiroshima, the “Flame of Peace” was lit, which will burn until the world does not destroy nuclear weapons.
24. Albert Einstein wrote a letter to President Roosevelt about the secret nuclear weapons formation by Germans.
25. Over the last 60 years, 2,000 nuclear bombs were tested around the world.
26. In the 1950s, nuclear tests locations were the main attraction in Las Vegas.
27. Barack Obama was the first president to visit Hiroshima after 71 years of an atomic bomb blast.
28. The most powerful nuclear weapon detonated was Tsar-Bomb, it was created by Soviets.
29. A month after the bombing on Hiroshima, typhoon hid the city, which killed another 2,000 people.
30. Shigeki Tanaka, another person who survived the Hiroshima bombing, won the Boston Marathon in 1951.
31. In 1962, the United States exploded a bomb that was 100 times more powerful than the bombs dropped on Japan. It was blown up in space, at an altitude of almost 400 km above the Pacific Ocean.
32. In the year 1979, an atomic bomb was tested in the Indian Ocean, no country took credit for it. It is called Vela Incident.
33. 10% of US energy comes from dismantled Soviet atomic bombs.
34. US air force accidentally dropped two atomic bombs on North Carolina in 1961, but neither of it exploded.
35. It is estimated that the US $ 8.8 trillion spent on the nuclear program until 1996.
36. One way to verify whether nuclear tests were conducted is the detection of cesium-137 and strontium-90. These isotopes did not exist in nature until the first use of nuclear weapons in 1945.
37. Scientists believe that a nuclear war will create 150 million tons of smoke, blocking all the sunlight.
38. After such a war, the earth could be unsuitable for life not only because of radiation but also because of the cold and the absence of sunlight.
39. In New Mexico, there is an atomic bomb museum at the site of the world’s first nuclear test. It opens only 12 hours a year.
40. In 1947, the British military used almost 7,000 tons of explosives left over from the Second World War to bomb Heligoland, a small German island in the North Sea.
41. The United States during the Cold War developed a bomb project to drop a bomb on the Moon to show its military might.
42. In the process of computed tomography, the patient’s body is irradiated with the same amount of radiation as if he was standing 2.5 km from the Hiroshima explosion
43. The US Air Force once studied the possibility of developing a “gay bomb” using pheromones, which could force soldiers of the enemy’s army to attract each other.
44. The radioactive waste of a nuclear bomb creates 2,000 tons of uranium mining waste.
45. Uranium miners suffer increased rates of lung cancer.
46. According to some estimates, it would take Vietnam nearly 300 years to clear its territory of bombs and mines. Also, it would cost 10 billion dollars.
47. During the Battle of the Somme (First World War) in 1916, 27 tons of explosives were blown up. The explosion was so great that people heard it even in London.
48. The amount of active substance that caused the explosion in Hiroshima was no more than a paper clip.
49. Somewhere off the coast of Georgia, the United States has an atomic bomb that was lost by the US Air Force in 1958.
50. Within the framework of the NATO nuclear weapon sharing, American nuclear warheads are stored in Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Turkey.


1. Price Skimming
• A marketer sets a relatively high initial price for a product or service at first –then lowers the price over time
• A temporal version of price discrimination or yield management
• Allows the firm to recover its sunk costs quickly before competition lowers the market price
• Objective is to capture the consumer surplus early in the product life cycle – to exploit a monopolistic position or the low price sensitivity of innovators
• A product pricing strategy – a firm charges the highest initial price that customers will pay
• As the demand of the first customers is satisfied – then the firm lowers the price to attract another, more price-sensitive segment
• Hence the name from skimming successive layers of cream – or customer segments – as prices are lowered over time
• Limitations:
o It is effective only when the firm is facing an inelastic demand curve
o A price skimmer must be careful with the law – Price discrimination is illegal in many jurisdictions – but yield management is not
o The inventory turn rate can be very low for skimmed products
o Skimming encourages the entry of competitors
o Skimming results in a slow rate of stuff diffusion and adaptation
o The manufacturer could develop negative publicity – they lower the price too fast without significant product changes
o High margins may make the firm inefficient.
• Examples:
o Technological markets: The top segment of the market which are willing to pay the highest price first – when the product enters maturity the price is then slowly lowered
o New product: Just entered the market – business usually start with a high price and it will lower over time
o Luxury car
o The book market: a new book is published in hardback at a high price
2. Product Bundling
• A marketing approach – multiple products or components are packaged together into one bundled solution
• Has become increasingly common in the early 21st century – companies try to overcome the costs of acquisition
• When effective – bundling offers benefits to business and its customers
• As with other business strategies – business may succeed or fail with product bundling
• Typically – long-term benefits and better customer relationships development
• Business should carefully analyse revenue + profit projections for both unbundled and bundled
• If bundled solutions generate lower profits and no customer advantages – no sense
• Tracking bundling performance and customer satisfaction helps ensure long-term benefits
• Examples
1. Electronics retailers often bundle hardware, software and accessories – such as, buy a computer + get a bundle deal with the printer, monitors, cables and antivirus software
2. Banks bundle – banking products to maximize the amount of business from each customer
3. Restaurants – commonly bundle food items to create value meals or combinations


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