1.0 worlds. In January of 1992, astrophysicists

1.0 – INTRODUCTION
Our Galaxy, named the Milky Way, – and even though it contains billions and billions of stars – is swarming with exoplanets1. Exoplanets, known as planets situated outside of our solar system that orbit other stars, have become an active part in the research field of astronomy2. A multitudinous amount (over more than 3,500) of exoplanets have been discovered since 1992, orbiting stars other than our sun1, which has led scientists and astronomers to believe that the universe is flooded with other worlds. In January of 1992, astrophysicists Aleksander Wolszczan and Dale Frail came across the first discovery of an exoplanet2. They founded three exoplanets orbiting the pulsar PSR1257+12 in an unforeseen environment2. In 1995, another discovery was made by astronomers Michel Mayor and DidierQueloz, who founded the first exoplanet around a main sequence (“normal”) star, calling it 51 Pegasi b (Fig 1.0)2. The planet, a gas giant, is believed to be about half the size of Jupiter4. By using a technique called microlensing, 2,000 extragalactic planets for every one star beyond the galaxy was founded by scientists at the University of Oklahoma (Fig 2.0)5. Since the first discovery of an exoplanet, which was founded two decades ago, the number of known exoplanets has doubled every 27 months6. As of this writing, approximately 3,588 exoplanets have been confirmed7, and many more planets (more than a thousand) are on standby, waiting for their confirmation..
.

1.1 – STATEMENT OF AIM
This purpose of this report is to go in-depth and discuss the current state of knowledge on exoplanets, as well as review two main themes: how exoplanets are studied and detected (what scientists look for in their search for exoplanets) and the importance of their study, including current and future proposed missions.

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2.0 THE SEARCH FOR EXOPLANETS
To get a better understanding of our universe, and to find out even more about the origins of life, research in the area of exoplanets is critical8. One thing that scientists and astronomers must address in the current search for exoplanets is to discover Earth-like planets that are in a star’s habitable zone8. The habitable zone (Fig 3.0) is a region where life can potentially exist, due to the planet’s surface temperature which allows for the formation of water in the liquid form to flow8. Agencies and other institutions including NASA are in search of a special kind of planet: One that is of similar size to the Earth, orbiting a sun-like star in the region of the habitable zone10. The Kepler Telescope (Fig 4.0) is known for identifying several small and rocky planets in this region1. Earth, for example, is in the habitable zone of the sun which explains why our planet has liquid water such as oceans and lakes6. Water, being the main support system for all life on Earth, is important, because as we know it, life on Earth began with water6. Techniques in observation have now advanced to a level where scientists are able to find “Super Earths” (planets that are less than 10 Earth Masses) that might be habitable11. Absorption features and the transmission spectrum of a planet can help to characterize a planet’s atmosphere and its habitability11. What creates a planet’s spectral fingerprint is its spectrum, which contains traces of atmospheric species11. In order to detect these species, biomarkers are used, and if a strong abundance is detected, it suggests a biological origin11. The investigation for the signs of life is wholly based on the supposition of extraterrestrial life and the fact that it may share essential characteristics with life on Earth11. Because life on Earth requires liquid water (as a solvent as well as a carbon-based chemistry), life based on a different chemistry would generate signatures in the atmosphere which would be considered foreign11. There are many things that are problematic about having a Super-Earth in a red dwarf’s habitable zone. Red dwarfs have generally not been considered feasible successors for hosting habitable planets12. Red dwarfs, characterized as small and dim, are relatively close to the habitable zone that surrounds them12. For one, it would be a difficult environment to live in because of radiation12. Another problem is the phenomenon of tidal locking, defined as when a planet keeps its side faced towards the sun, taking in almost all the heat12. Therefore, it would be too cold on one side because it would be dark with freezing temperatures, and too hot on the other because that side would be the one receiving all the sunlight, as well as being the side with hot temperatures. So, the habitable zone would have to lie somewhere in the middle, making it suitable for life13. Another problem with red dwarfs are solar flares, that shoot off a star several times per day, showing huge increases in UV radiation, which in turn could potentially sterilize the surface of a neighbouring planet12. With the advancement of technology, the search for Earth-like planets will continue, and the potential for finding exoplanets that have the ability to support life will increasingly become more likely to find.

3.0 THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING EXOPLANETS
The hunt for other worlds like our Earth has brought upon intense excitement and interest surrounding the discovery of exoplanets7. The current and near-future approved missions (Fig 5.0) are helping to extend the frontiers of knowledge in the study of exoplanets, mainly to search for habitable worlds14. Some important exoplanet missions include: The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite15 (also known as TESS), and the future known mission: The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled to launch in 201915. The TESS Mission (Fig 6.0) is a satellite used to discover exoplanets by using the transit method, and during a two-year period, it will monitor the brightness of over 200,000 stars15. Designed to identify planets, it will recognize a wide range of planets, for example, from Earth sized planets to gas giants15. It will also search for temporary drops in brightness of stars and will cover quite a wide span of orbital periods15. The James Webb Space Telescope (Fig 7.0) will be optimized for infrared wavelengths and will be able to analyze the history of the universe, having the ability to find galaxies that formed in the early universe as well as the formation of other solar systems15. Space missions are now able to give us statistics, such as the number, size and orbital distances of planets, from terrestrial planets to gas giants11. By doing so, it will help to characterize other planets11. Future space missions are also said to characterize the atmosphere of a planet and the observation techniques that are being used will have advanced to the point where we could find planets of less than 10MEarth (Super Earths) which, around small stars, may be habitable11.
There are also great benefits that come with space research, such as the socioeconomic aspect. Space research has become a way to unify humanity by increasing connectedness, communication, and self-awareness through images such as “The Day the Earth Smiled”, shown in Figure 8.016.

4.0 – CONCLUSION
The study of exoplanets is truly interesting because exoplanets have the capacity to solve mysteries about our own Solar System. The approaches for finding life have certainly been centered on Earth life, its features, and characteristics because Earth is the only example of life as we know1. Space missions like the James Webb Space Telescope will aide in capturing images of distant planets with our ever expanding knowledge5. Not every planet is the same age and working out what a planet looks like when it’s still young will help to understand what Earth might have looked like, both physically and chemically. As we discover and learn more about exoplanets and what they can teach us about our own world and worlds beyond what we can understand, the potential for advancement as a human race will only increase in knowledge and advancement.

1. What are the phases of overall Incident Response development process?
A. In each and every organization the incident response plan is essential to detect the threats, damages and recover from any security breaches that affected the Business. Typically, the IR process plan consists of following:
Preparation: It plays an important role to get ready and make the personnel together to handle the situations when any damage or threat occurs.
Detection and analysis: To determine whether the event is the security incident or not and analyze the effects that caused.
Containment: Estimating the risk of the damage and keep apart the secured property for security breach.
Eradication: Need to know the reason for the incident and eliminate the damage.
Recovery: Bringing back the business in to normal operating conditions with the sign of no threats.
Post incident activity: Maintain records and monitor the activity with proper future planning.
2. What are the ways training can be undertake for the CSIRT?
A. Computer security incident response teams plays an important role when security incident occurs. In this several training and rehearsal activities need to be undertaken for the security breaches. Different internal, external training programs are to be conducted on regular basis. Incident response plan should be tested and regularly monitored for the latest technology and the personnel should be trained to handle the unexpected situations. Therefore, they are important for maintaining confidentially, integrity and availability of the organization.
3. Briefly discover the possible training deliver methods?
A. An effective approach for handling the security incident should be carried out when the breach occurs. Several training methods need to employed for each and every person involved in that specific area. Formal internal and external trainings need to be given. Different methods of trainings are delivered to the trainee like computer based provided training with installed softwares and video, audio modes of communication for seminar and presentation of the personnel, other types of Training awareness are to be conducted on the work onsite for the effectiveness of the problem solution, and required support from the management is provided for the training.

1. Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1. Background Flying machine sheds, by their exceptionally nature, represent a one a kind test for flame security engineers. Extensive, open stunned territories with high rooftop decks house flying machine s worth a huge number dollars (1). Notwithsting a lot fly fuel, some support exercises that occur inside sheds give a large group start sources. Once fire breaks out, a considerable measure smoke is delivered with high temp-eratu-re brings poor spillage capacity troub in departure. Vast flying machine wings, fuselages platform likewise can possibly limit fire identification, concealment stream smoke, introducing a conceivably deadly mixed drink. For flame security configuration to be powerful, various issues should first be considered. These incorporate fire source, warm exchange, fire location caution, human conduct, smoke development, poisonous quality contamination. 1.2. Fire Cause Fire is an exceptional sort oxidation known as ignition. Oxidation is a procedure in which partic a fuel are joined with atoms oxygen delivering a blend gases vitality. At the point when this happens quickly, as in a fire, vitality is discharged as warmth light, a few gases end up noticeable as smoke. There are three essential components must be available for a fire to happen: fuel, warmth, oxygen. These three parts make up the fire triangle (appeared in figure 1.1) appropriate blend these three things perpetually brings a fire.

The chemical chain reaction between the fuel, heat, oxygen represents the fourth component the fire equation. We will refer to this as the fire square shown in figure 1.2.Anytime something burns, these four components are present. Preventing the combination these elements will prevent a fire. If one or more the elements is removed from the fire situation, the fire will be extinguished. 1.3. Classes Fire Fire is separated into five classes construct essentially in light the fuel that is consuming. This grouping framework encourages us evaluate dangers decide the best sort stifling specialist. It is additionally utilized for grouping, rating, testing fire dousers. The style class images are appeared in figure. 1.3. 1.3.1. Firefighting Procedure The safeguard clearing process starts by large subsequent to calling fire fice which is appeared in figure 1.4. After flame is identified the fire alert is transmitted to guarantee fire division reaction. At that point the choice to flame without anyone else’s input or to hold up flame warriors help is made by flame measure, sort, area the conditions the fire. After firefighters go to the let go put, the departure procedure is begun to clear the jeopardized individuals who are still inside the building. 1.4. Objectives Smoke Management Smoke management aims to extract the smoke produced from fire by means vntlation systems as shown in figure 1.5. This management provides: • Safe escape by extending the evacuation time for the occupants. 1.5. Hazards Smoke The smoke is produced due to the chemical reaction between fuels (gas, liquid, solid) the induced air. These chemical reactions produce hot gasses which have harmful effects on the occupants. 1.5.1. Toxicity The toxic products fires consist irritant (organic smoke products acid gases like hydrogen chloride “HCL”) narcotic components (carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide) which can cause disorientation, incapacitation or death, the effect depending upon the concentration length exposure. 1.5.2. High temp-eratu-re The temp-eratu-re burn is significant since it can cause burns by convection (to exposed skin lungs) by radiation. With long exposure times there is also the risk hyperthermia. 1.5.3. Reduce vizblty Smoke partic irritant products can reduce vizblty. While loss vizblty is not directly life threatening, it can prevent or delay escape thus expose people to the risk being overtaken by fire. 1.5.4. Back layering Backlayering is the smoke movement contrary to the vntlation direction. 1.6. Building Vntlation Vntlation is the way toward controlling the stream the smoke, warm, poisonous gases with the goal that they are discharged securely viably from a building. Appropriate vntlation additionally confines fire spread inside the structure. Vntlation close to the wellspring the fire can restrict the region contribution diminish the spread warmth lethal gases all the structure. Beginning vntlation enab more oxygen to achieve the fire; this can bring flashover or a fierce fiery surge. 1.7. Vntlation installation Vntlation installation is classified according to the direction smoke extraction. ? Horizontal vntlation, takes the advantage the doors, windows other openings at the same level fire ? Vertical vntlation involves making openings in ro s or floors so that heat, smoke, toxic gases can escape from the structure in a vertical direction.. 1.7.1. Natural vntlation As shown in figure 1.14, Natural vntlation depends on convection currents, wind, other natural air movement to allow contaminated atmosphere to flow out a structure. The heat a fire creates convection currents that move smoke gases up toward the ro or ceiling out away from the fire source. 1.1.1. Mechanical-vntlation Mechanical vntlation uses large high-powered fans which are shown in figure 1.15 to augment natural vntlation; that is, it involves the use of fans or o r powered equipment. re are three different methods mechanical vntlation. Negative- pressure vntlation uses fans called smoke ejectors to exhaust smoke hear from structure. 1.1.2. Impls vntlation As late jet fans or impulse fans have built up itself as new stard in vntlation. IVS are an elective decision to ducted mechanical concentrate frameworks, defeating majority issues identified with ducted frameworks. A drive fan is appeared in Figure 1.16 1.17. It comprises a hub fan with gulf and fumes direct vans and any required monitors and stream circulation control units. (12) 1.2. Present Work This study prsnt numricl anlyss for improving traditional system duct vntlation system to manage smoke produced due to push-back vehicle on fire in aircraft hangar. By studying effect changing different variab on vizblty, temp-eratu-re and v-e;o-ci-ty at human level to insure not to exceed limits stated by to apply evacuation plan. study is performed using Fire dynamic simulator to simulate 16 case studies in hangar airports in Brandenburg. hangar has outer dimensions 83.40 m width and 77.60 m depth and thus an inner area approx. 6,472 m2. hangar has a medium interior height approximately 18.20 m. hangar has one large wide aircraft (Airbus A330-300). ? 2. Chapter 2 Literature Review This chapter presents previous work in smoke control in Tunnels and high buildings using CFD and experimental studies. studies include effect various parameters on smoke control performance. 2.1. Applying Large Eddy Simulation in Study Fire and Smoke Spread at Underground Car Park Q Wang (13) uncovered impact smoke deplete openings game plan on smoke spread execution in passage fire semi-transverse smoke extraction mode. Results demonstrate that smoke back-layering can be essentially influenced by upstream openings course action in burrow fires. As more fumes openings added to upstream, smoke back-layering length winds up more grounded and smoke spread rate amazingly increment. In addition, most extreme smoke temp-eratu-re over fire source likewise amazingly increment because joined impact longitudinal wind current and measure smoke debilitate expanded in upstream from fire. Subsequently, fire hazard blocked tenants and passage structure increment in upstream. This exploration can add outline flame security fices and administration flame crisis in burrows with comparative conditions. 2.1.1. Case study A full scale half circle burrow display is worked with a length 1000m and a distance across 14.5m, similarly as appeared in Fig.1. The fire estimate in the model is taken to be 20MW, suggested by PIARC. It is an incomplete transverse vntlation framework that five smoke extraction openings are introduced adjacent the activity, the basic speed can be computed as: g is the gravity acceleration, m/s2; H is the equivalent diameter, m; T is the smoke temp-eratu-re, K; T0 is ambient temp-eratu-re, oK; ?o is the air density, kg/m3, Cp specific heat capacity at constant pressure, kJ/kg.oK; kg slope correction coefficient. And the calculated critical v-e;o-ci-ty is 2.0m/s after taking a descending slop degree (-4.5%) in account based on the practical design. Physically, due constraint space, fire disaster will inevitably bring massive smoke and xic substances. However, massive occupants vehic are blocked in upstream the fire location. The spread the reverse flow would seriously thread the blocked occupants’ lives. On the other hand, in the initial period, the v-e;o-ci-ty the vehic can be greater than the v-e;o-ci-ty the smoke front. Fir Dynmic Simlatr is used calculate the situations fire and smoke spread. The stware is a three-dimensional Comptationl Flud Dynmic plat m, developed by Nationl Instittute Standrd and Techlogy the United States, coupling with Larj Edd Simultion codes fire modeling. And Smoke view is the accessary post-processing visualization ol. Physically, solves numerically a form the Nvir-S ks equtin thermly driven flow. The Sub-Grid-Model (SGM) commonly used in is developed originally by Smagorinsky. The eddy viscosity is obtained by assuming that the smll scals are in equillbrum, by blancng the enrgy prductin and dispation. The turblnt visoity defined in is: The Smagorinsky constant Cs in simulation is flow dependent and has been optimized over a range from 0.1 0.25 various flow fields. The estimated velocities are tested at each time step ensure that the CFL condition is satisfied: 2.1.2. Results and discussion As expressed over, the numerical reproductions give three-dimensional fields the stream fac rs. Keeping in mind the end goal delineate the impacts the smoke course action techniques on the spread conduct the smoke produced in a fire occurrence, the longitudinal shapes temp-eratu-re focus along a focal plane at three certain time will be appeared. Longitudinal pri temp-eratu-re at stable condition are likewise subjectively introduced, with the higher qualities (in red) comparing 593oK and bring down qualities (in dull blue) relating 293oK. In addition, the smoke layer conveyance and the smoke spreading rate is additionally broke down, as talked underneath in detail. 2.1.2.1. Smoke temp-eratu-re distribution Fig.2.3 presents the run the mill temp-eratu-re appropriation at the season 300s, 900s every one the cases. Seen from the figure, the smoke spreading locale extends with time in upstream and downstream. In addition, with the expanding smoke vents in upstream, the reverse smoke layer that surpass the basic temp-eratu-re 60oC is extended combined with the smoke dying down beneath basic stature 2m. Physically, these wonders infer that the including smoke vents in upstream will present a more grounded reverse that initiates increasingly smoke moving upward. Accordingly, these prompt the exping reverse spread rate in addition the fire dangers Fig.2.4 demonstrates the temp-eratu-re appropriation at the stature 2 m in the focal point the activity path in the two bearings various fumes mode at stable condition. With the including smoke debilitate openings in upstream, it can be seen in Fig.2.4 that 1) Temp-eratu-re in downstream is more steady than that in upstream; This may show s unsettling influence from the fumes stream the cross air; In addition, 2) The most extreme temp-eratu-re over the fire source, increments with the fumes openings moving upstream. Indeed, the exping upstream fumes stream would diminish the wind current coming the fire source. This can credit exped because coupling aftereffects cooling impact longitudinal wind current the measure smoke debilitate exped in upstream from the fire; Besides, 3) high temp-eratu-re locale is extended in upstream, which suggests more grounded reverse smoke incited by the exping upstream fumes stream. Furthermore, this definitely builds fire dangers the blocked tenants. 2.1.2.2. Variation smoke layer Fig.2.5 demonstrates the smoke layer circulation in the focal point the movement path in the two bearings various fumes mode at stable condition. Every one these perceptions are predictable with the outcomes uncovered in Fig.3.All figures ought be numbered with Arabic numerals (1,2 … n). All pho s, outlines, charts graphs are be alluded as figures. Fig.2.6 demonstrates the smoke layer spread rate at various position along the passage focus in two ways. It can be seen in the figure: 1) the spread rate in two ways both decline strongly with the smoke moving far from the fire inside the 50m close to the fie. 2.1.2.3. Coclusons In this work, a reenactment demonstrate was worked explore the impact smoke deplete techniques around the fire source on the smoke spread conduct in a long passage with semi-transverse smoke extraction mode.

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1.1 INTRODUCTION
The first chapter deals about the nature of industry, conceptual and theoretical findings observed in L&T Construction under Human Resources department. The profile of the industry and company is also included.
1.2 CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF TRAINING NEED ANAYLSIS
Training needs analysis (TNA) is a process in which needs are identified and broken into their component parts to determine the solutions of the problem. It determines the gap between ‘what is’ and ‘what should be’ situations. It is the process used to identify the training and development needs of your employees (all trades, professions, employees and contractors), so that they can carry out their job effectively, safely and efficiently, and develop their careers (sucession planning). The TNA considers the skills, knowledge and attributes (behaviours) that your people need and how to identify and develop them effectively. The outcome of your TNA should be a robust learning and development plan, based on identified requirements and linked to organisational, team and individual objectives. When carried out effectively, a TNA will have many positive effects for your organisation, teams and individuals, as the training which follows as a result of the TNA should be relevant and meet their development needs.
1.1.1 THE TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS (TNA) PROCESS
The TNA process is about gathering information to identify gaps between job knowledge and skills required now or for future employment needs and the current knowledge and skills of an employee or group of employees. Training and management development activity has to be properly planned and the first priority for anyone designing training programs is to figure out how the proposed training enhances an organizations ability to deliver quality and thereby stay in business. According to Richard D. Miller (1969) assessment of training needs, objectives setting, design implementation and evaluation are various phases in the process of training.
A training need may be described as existing any time an actual condition differs from a desired condition in the human, or “people” aspect of organization performance or, more specifically, when a change in present human knowledge’s, skills, or attitudes can bring about the desired performance (James H. Morrison, ASTD Hand book, 1976). There are three ways to get at training needs:
1. Assuming a performance problem has been identified with a particular group, survey that group for whom training may be needed, their supervisors, the receivers of the product or services provided by that 65 group, and their subordinates, if any. Here the focus is on the group responses which, when analyzed properly, can lead to the preparation of training for individuals, usually in groups.
2. Conduct organizational audits that review production financial, personnel, and other operational data from records and reports to uncover problem areas susceptible to correction through training and/or development. A full functional audit of an area may need to be conducted to get a thorough analysis of the situation. Here the focus is on “results” of activities, and work backward to the causes to identify training needs.
3. Assess an individual’s achievement levels, knowledge’s, potentials, behaviors, skills, and performance; prepare a needs analysis; and plan development and training specifically for that individual. Similar techniques may be used with groups of individuals, but the focus is on the individual, and the outcome should include individual development plans.
1.1.2 TRAINING DESIGN
The design stage of the training follows the TNA stage. During this stage, it is very important that training methods selected must match the training needs, and the training strategy and planning must be appropriate to the training objective and circumstances. The key parties that must be involved in the training design should include the organisation’s representative, the line management, the training manager and/or the training officer and the trainee. The application of the training procedures must be in the hands of personnel who are able to apply a variety of competences in flexible ways to mesh with the organisation’s operational considerations. The decision to determine the appropriate training strategy should be based on the training compatibility with the objectives, estimated likelihood of transfer of learning to the work situation, available resources and trainee related factors. From this, the training can be designed to be on-thejob, planned organisational experience, in-house programs, planned experience outside the organization, external courses, self-managed learning, or a combination of these approaches. In contrast to traditional training, the design of competence-based trainings must be based on explicit and measurable performance because it needs to reflect the actual expectations and performance in the work role.
1.1.3 TRAINING IMPLEMENTATION
Training implementation is putting the training design into practice. The mechanistic “traditional” training approach has now greatly changed, replaced with the modern approach that emphasise more of coaching and facilitating. The training spectrum may vary from highly directive to free-learning, guided-learning, lecture/discussion, presentation, instruction and conditioning for individuals or as a group. The training needs to be different for different people but concurrent with the different kinds of tasks they undertake. In most situations, formal training entails deliberate and structured presentation of experiences and must be related to its purpose. The training policy and plan must be the key reference for implementing training. Task force exercise, case discussion, simulation and games; role-play exercise, group discussion, individual exercise, presentation/lectures and behavior modelling are the common training methods, and may be carried out through external or internal providers. The trainer must be committed and equipped with wide-ranging toolkit of ideas, techniques, methods and approaches which can be adopted as and when most appropriate. On-the-job training is often very effective, flexible and relatively low-cost, but can be ineffective if it is too detached from the actual job-environment or, if it does not follow guidelines of standard training programs. Competence-based training often have modular outlines. It must take into account occupational constraints such as availability of target groups, training premises, possible need for several programs and the atmosphere at the job location. The training activity must be realistic to the preferred learning styles of the target group. The delivery of training or learning needs to be clearly focused on what happens at the job place and not just what happens during the learning/training events
1.1.4 TRAINING EVALUATION
Training evaluation is the assessment of the total value of a training system, which considers the training course or program in technical, social as well as financial terms. It attempt to measure the overall cost benefit of the course. It must encompass a systematic collection of data relevant to the selection, adoption or modification of training and developmental activities, and must be an on-going process from which continuous corrective action can be introduced to ensure an ever-improving training. There are differing views as to who should be evaluating the training, but most views tend to agree that senior managers, line managers, training managers, trainers and learners must be included. It is imperative that evaluations must be impartial. Evaluation should be done before training starts. A baseline data must be established to measure the training program response, on-the-job action, business-focus results and the organisational impact of the training. Post-training evaluation is very important as the training itself is wasted if employees cannot transfer what they have learned. Training effectiveness is the sub-set of evaluation and is the desired outcome of the training evaluation. The explicit and implicit goals of training should be laid down in the cost and benefits analysis. The criteria for determining the extent of indirect and social cost or benefit are very subjective. Training effectiveness is a value judgment, which is contingent upon the context of training; the baseline criteria set as the explicit and implicit training goals; and the accomplishment of these goals. The professional way to determine training effectiveness is often to validate training holistically by taking into account outcomes from both the organisation and the individual
1.2 CONCEPTS USED AND THEIR DEFINITIONS IN THE STUDY
Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one’s capability, capacity, and performance.
Methods of Training:
There are different methods of training for operating personnel (factory workers). Training these workers becomes important because they handle equipment worth crores of rupees.
• On the job training method
Here the employees were divided into groups and one superior is allotted to every group. This superior or supervisor first demonstrates how the equipment must be handled, and then the worker is asked to repeat whatever he has observed in the presence of the supervisor. This method makes it easy for the employee to learn the details about specific equipment. Once the worker studies the first equipment thoroughly the supervisor moves on to the next equipment and so on.

• Apprenticeship training
Here both theory and practical session are conducted. The theory sessions give theoretical information about the plant layout, the different machines, their parts and safety measures etc. The practical sessions give practical training in handling the equipment. The apprentice may or may not be continued on the job after training.
• Job rotation
Here the employees transferred from one equipment to the other for a fixed amount of time until he is comfortable with all the equipments. At the end of the training the employee becomes comfortable with all the equipment. He is then assigned a specific task.
JOB ANALYSIS
Job analysis is the process of determining how work should be organized and performed. It includes activities such as determining the optimal organizational structure, management reporting relationships, division of labour, job roles and responsibilities, job descriptions, required knowledge, skills and attitudes, compensation and rewards. Job analysis may be conducted at many levels and with many purposes in mind. Swanson (1994) has identified three basic types of job performance analysis: Present performance problems, Performance improvement opportunities, and Future performance requirements.
LEARNER ANALYSIS
Learner analysis is the investigation of the current and future audience for training. It is conducted to understand the prerequisite knowledge; skill and experience of the training audience to better target the intended training. It also includes examining the culture, learning styles, background, values and beliefs of the learners so as to match the training design and methodology to the learners.
CONTEXT ANALYSIS
Context analysis examines the environment in which the trainee learns. It includes training environment on the job. It also helps to identify barriers that prevent learning and ways to mitigate these problems.
SKILL-GAP ANALYSIS
Skill-gap analysis is a specialized form of need assessment that examines and documents the gap between employees’ current skill and the skills needed to perform the job successfully. Significant gap between the current performance of employees and the desired or required performance helps the training designers to demonstrate a need for training depending on the skill areas the gaps point at. These skill gaps also help in formulation of objectives and content of training.
1.3 IMPORTANCE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Training has existed from the inception of human being in different forms in the society. It is a medium to pass different skills from one generation to another. But with change in time, the magnitude of training has undergone sea change. Growth and development in technology has developed variety of methods and techniques in the way of training. These changes have added new dimensions to training and influenced the requirement of training. Training of human resource is carried out at macro and micro level. At macro level training is necessary for generating awareness among people on social issues, educating people and spreading literacy in society for giving people an opportunity to live a better life. Training activities at micro level are oriented towards development of people working in the organization to perform better in their job and develop their competency on the job for growth of the organization. Thus every one takes training in some or other form for survival and sustenance on this planet.
1.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
• Since most of the data are kept confidential, its hard to get clarified.
• Time constraints
• Since the sample size is 300 the result may not applicable for all employees.
1.6 PROFILE OF THE INDUSTRY
The construction industry is traditionally divided into three sub-sectors. They are
the construction of buildings , road, highway, and other “infrastructure” construction and specialty trades. It thus encompasses all the businesses that build either houses and office buildings or highways and bridges, as well as those who do the specialized work of electricians, plumbers and masons, who are typically involved in the construction of all kinds of structures. The construction industry is a significant part of our economy, employing over 8 percent of all wage earners.

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ROAD AHEAD
Construction sector, which is the second largest employment generator after agriculture, comprising roads, ports, airports, bridges and real estate, has the multiplier potential to create benefits at least double the size of direct inputs, highlighted the study titled Construction industry. In the midst of doom and gloom in the global economy with consequential impact on India, highly job-oriented construction industry can give quite positive results in terms of stepping up economic growth, more employment and raising tax revenue for the government. The output multiplier demonstrates how an increase in demand of Indian construction sector can lead to an increase in overall output of the economy by 2.4 times thereby showcasing strong backward linkages of the sector with ancillary and complementary industries such as cement, steel, iron, bricks, sand, chemicals, heavy machines and equipment, sanitary ware, wood, electrical and other fixtures, paints and others, noted the study. It is an acknowledged fact that construction has the potential to drive and revive manufacturing in any economy. The construction sectors’ contribution to GDP in India has stayed fairly constant at around 7-8% for the last five years. Indian construction industries highly fragmented. There are mostly unorganized players in the industry which work on the sub contracting basis. As the construction activity being labour intensive, construction companies have been mainly focusing on the mechanization over past few years. The Indian construction industry forms an integral part of the economy and a conduit for a substantial part of the development investment, is poised for the growth of industrialization, urbanization, economic development and people’s rising expectation for the improved quality of living. Construction constitutes 40% to 50% of india’s capital expenditure on projects in various sector such as highways, roads, railways, energy, airports, irrigation etc and is the second largest industry in india. The construction industry is a major contributor towards India’s GDP, both directly and indirectly. It employs 33 million people, and any improvements in the construction sector affect a number of associated industries such as cement, steel, technology, skill-enhancement, etc. Construction usually is done or coordinated by general contracts, who specialize in one type of construction such as residential or commercial building. Cost structure of the construction industry is dominated by raw material cost which is the major cost account for30 – 50% of the cost and subcontracting cost accounts for 20-40%. Today Indian sub continent is the second fastest growing economy in the world. The Indian construction industry has been playing a vital role in overall economic development of the country, growing at over 20% compound annual growth rate over past 5 years and contributing 8% to GDP.
1.7 PROFILE OF THE COMPANY
Larsen ; Toubro is a US$14.3 billion technology, engineering, construction and manufacturing and financial services conglomerate. It addresses critical needs in key sectors including infrastructure, construction, hydrocarbon, power, defence and aerospace. Its footprint extends across seven countries in addition to India. A strong, customer-focused approach, conformance to global HSE standards and the constant quest for top-class quality have enabled the Company to sustain leadership in its major lines of business for over 75 years. L;T was rated 58th Most Innovative Company by Forbes International and 4th in the global list of ‘green companies’ in the industrial sector by Newsweek. It was voted among the most admired companies in the country by Fortune India, and rated 8th Most Powerful Brand in India by Brand Finance. It won The Economic Times Corporate Citizen of the Year Award – 2013, instituted by one of the world’s most widely sold business newspapers – The Economic Times. A survey by a leading HR consultancy affirmed its reputation as a people-focused company, leading to the award for the ‘Most Attractive Employer’ in the industrial sector.
HISTORY
The evolution of L&T into a major engineering and construction organisation is among the more remarkable success stories in Indian industry. It was founded in Mumbai (then Bombay) in 1938 by two Danish engineers, Henning Holck-Larsen and Soren Kristian Toubro. Beginning with the import of machinery from Europe, L&T took on engineering and construction assignments of increasing sophistication. Today, the company sets engineering benchmarks in terms of scale and complexity.
1.8 CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY
L&T was the first company in India in the engineering & construction space to publicly disclose its sustainability performance. The Company’s annual Sustainability Reports highlight achievements and objectives across the traditional three ‘Ps’ of Planet, People and Profits. All our Reports are rated A+ by Global Reporting Initiatives, indicating the highest level of disclosure. The recognition that the Company has secured from forums around the world affirm public perception of L;T as an organization that contributes significantly to the wellbeing of people.
RECORD OF ACHIEVEMENTS
• Technological support in the launch and tracking systems for Mangalyaan – India’s Mars Mission, and the only mission to successfully enter Martian orbit in its maiden attempt. Earlier L&T had also contributed to India’s lunar mission.
• Metro projects being executed in Riyadh and Qatar as part of international consortiums.
• Engaged in building major new airports in Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and int5880ernationally, in Sharjah, Oman.
• Building major infrastructure projects including ports, specialised bridges and highway projects.
• Design ; manufacture of a wide range of switchgear products and systems exported to over 30 countries.
1.8.1 L;T HYDROCARBON ENGINEERING
L;T Hydrocarbon Engineering delivers ‘design to build’ engineering and construction solutions on a turnkey basis in the oil ; gas, petroleum refining, chemicals ; petrochemicals and fertilizer sectors. In-house expertise, experience, and strategic partnerships enable it to deliver a single point solution for all projects – from front-end design through engineering, fabrication, project management, construction and installation and commissioning. Modular fabrication facilities at Hazira (India, west coast), Kattupalli (India, east coast) and Sohar (Oman) give L;T all-weather delivery capability. The Company’s operations are characterized by an overriding emphasis on safety, ontime delivery, cost competitiveness, high quality standards with focus on best in class IT security practices. Integrated strengths coupled with an experienced and highly skilled work force, are key enablers in delivering critical and complex projects.
1.8.2 TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE
L&T is engaged in the turnkey construction of major infrastructure projects – expressways, bridges, runways and railway projects. The Company has been a leading player in rail infrastructure development for more than three decades, and has brought in new technologies and mechanised construction. L&T is the only private organisation in India qualified to undertake integrated rail construction projects of the Indian Railways.
1.8.3 HEAVY CIVIL INFRASTRUCTURE
The Company undertakes heavy civil construction – underground metro rail corridors docks, container terminals, wharves and berths, jetties, breakwater and shore protection, and caissons. It has the expertise to design special launching and erection techniques, including special systems formwork for concrete deck on top of steel and concrete structures. Comprehensive engineering, procurement and construction services are offered for hydropower projects. L&T has also played a critical role in the development of technology for India’s nuclear power sector.
1.8.4 BUILDING ; FACTORIES
L;T occupies leadership position in the construction of major airports, IT parks, turnkey hospitals and residential buildings. Building ; Factories Business undertakes projects on a ‘concept to commissioning’ basis. Its technological capabilities encompass tall towers and eco-friendly ‘green’ buildings. Its track record includes landmark structures such as the Baha’i temple in New Delhi.
1.8.5 POWER TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION
The focus is on sub-stations, industrial electrification, transmission line projects and railway construction on the domestic front, and power transmission and distribution projects. L&T has an extensive track record in the Middle East, and is recognised as a major player in the region.
1.8.6 WATER PROJECTS & SOLAR ENERGY
L&T’s Water ; Solar business caters to the entire value chain of water and solar EPC. The water and effluent treatment business covers water intake, transmission, treatment and distribution including industrial waste water treatment ; disposal and ordinary waste water treatment ; reuse segments. The water technology business uses advanced water treatment technologies for complex treatment projects – largely in the Middle East. L;T’s Solar EPC business comprises solar photovoltaic (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP).

1.8.7 METALLURGICAL & MATERIAL HANDLING
This Company undertakes turnkey construction contracts for projects in minerals & metals sector, and bulk material handling projects. It is a leader in all its areas of operations. It has a structural steel fabrication unit at Kanchipuram to meet the customised needs of its wide client base.
1.8.8 POWER
L&T offers turnkey solutions for the power sector with a wide capability spectrum covering supercritical coal and gas based projects. The supercritical technology that L&T propagates is ‘greener’ than conventional techniques and represents a major advantage for industry. L&T’s integrated capabilities and in-house expertise encompass virtually every aspect of design, engineering, manufacture, construction and project management. The Company’s integrated manufacturing facility at Hazira near Surat is among the most advanced in the world for manufacturing state-of-the-art equipment for power plants – boilers, steam turbines, pulverizers, pressure piping, coaxial fans, air-pre-heaters and electrostatic precipitators. The complex also includes a modern casting and foundry shop.
1.8.9 HEAVY ENGINEERING
L&T is acknowledged as one of the top five manufacturing companies in the world in the heavy engineering space. Operating at the higher end of the technological spectrum, L&T’s offerings straddle the segments of process plants and the strategic sectors of defence, nuclear and aerospace. New processes, products and materials have been introduced in manufacturing. The Company also has the logistics capabilities of fabricating and supplying over-dimensional equipment to tight delivery schedules. Globally-benchmarked workshops are located at Powai in Mumbai, Hazira and Baroda in Gujarat, Talegaon in Maharashtra, and Sohar in Oman.
1.8.10 SHIPBUILDING
Two modern shipyards – one on the west coast of India at Hazira, and the other on the east coast at Kattupalli near Chennai establish L;T as a major shipbuilder. A state-of- the-art Marine Design Centre is located at Chennai. L;T Shipbuilding focuses on four major business segments: Building warships, submarines and auxiliary vessels; Building specialized commercial ships; Repairs and re-fits of submarines as well as naval and commercial ships; Ship conversions. The Hazira Shipyard has the capability to build sophisticated mid-sized ships up to 20,000 t deadweight capacity, of 10 metres in length. The mega shipyard at Kattupalli also includes a container port and an offshore modular fabrication yard. It has a waterfront of 2.2 km, depth of 10m at berths and channel depths of 16 m.
1.8.11 ELECTRICAL ; AUTOMATION
L;T is a major international manufacturer of a wide range of electrical and electronic products and systems. In the electrical segment, the Company holds leadership position in low tension switchgear in India, and is rapidly establishing itself in international markets. The product range also includes custom-engineered LV and MV switchboards for industrial sectors like power, refineries, petrochemical, cement. In the electronic segment are a wide range of meters and complete control and automation systems for industries.
1.8.12 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Larsen ; Toubro Infotech, a 100% subsidiary of L;T, offers comprehensive, end-to-end software solutions and services with a focus on Manufacturing, BFSI and Communications ; Embedded Systems. It provides a cost cutting partnership in the realm of offshore outsourcing, application integration and package implementation. Leveraging the heritage and domain expertise of the parent company, its services encompass a broad technology spectrum, catering to leading international companies across the globe.
1.8.13 TECHNOLOGY SERVICES
L;T Technology Services provides leading-edge engineering solutions to multiple industry sectors like automotive, aerospace, consumer electronics, consumer packaged goods, marine, medical devices, off-highway equipment, railways, pharmaceuticals, oil ; gas, utilities, infrastructure and industrial products. With its global headquarters at Vadodara, the Company operates through dedicated engineering centres in tandem with onsite teams worldwide. Its client base includes several Fortune 500 companies.
1.8.14 MACHINERY ; INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS
The Company manufactures, markets and provides service support for industrial products, industrial machinery as well as construction and mining machinery. This includes a wide range of industrial valves for critical applications, rubber processing machinery, surface miners, hydraulic excavators, aggregate crushers and application engineered welding alloys and cutting tools.
1.8.15 INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT
L;T Infrastructure Development Projects Limited, a subsidiary, leverages domain expertise in construction and financial services, and is a major player in Public-PrivateProjects in India. L;T IDPL develops projects in various models – Build Own Transfer, Build Own Operate Transfer, Build Own Operate Share Transfer, and other variants including the annuity model. Major projects being executed by the Company include Hyderabad Metro Rail – the largest public-private rail project in the world, and ports at Dhamra and Kattupalli. Multiple highway projects around the country have established L;T IDPL as the leader in the space.
1.8.16 FINANCIAL SERVICES
L;T Financial Services – a publicly listed subsidiary – is a key player in India’s financial services sector. Its subsidiaries include L&T Finance Limited, L&T Infrastructure Finance Company Limited and L&T Asset Management Company Limited. The Company also provides Insurance related services through L&T General Insurance Company Limited.

1.1 INTRODUCTION
The first chapter deals about the nature of industry, conceptual and theoretical findings observed in L&T Construction under Human Resources department. The profile of the industry and company is also included.
1.2 CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF TRAINING NEED ANAYLSIS
Training needs analysis (TNA) is a process in which needs are identified and broken into their component parts to determine the solutions of the problem. It determines the gap between ‘what is’ and ‘what should be’ situations. It is the process used to identify the training and development needs of your employees (all trades, professions, employees and contractors), so that they can carry out their job effectively, safely and efficiently, and develop their careers (sucession planning). The TNA considers the skills, knowledge and attributes (behaviours) that your people need and how to identify and develop them effectively. The outcome of your TNA should be a robust learning and development plan, based on identified requirements and linked to organisational, team and individual objectives. When carried out effectively, a TNA will have many positive effects for your organisation, teams and individuals, as the training which follows as a result of the TNA should be relevant and meet their development needs.
1.1.1 THE TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS (TNA) PROCESS
The TNA process is about gathering information to identify gaps between job knowledge and skills required now or for future employment needs and the current knowledge and skills of an employee or group of employees. Training and management development activity has to be properly planned and the first priority for anyone designing training programs is to figure out how the proposed training enhances an organizations ability to deliver quality and thereby stay in business. According to Richard D. Miller (1969) assessment of training needs, objectives setting, design implementation and evaluation are various phases in the process of training.
A training need may be described as existing any time an actual condition differs from a desired condition in the human, or “people” aspect of organization performance or, more specifically, when a change in present human knowledge’s, skills, or attitudes can bring about the desired performance (James H. Morrison, ASTD Hand book, 1976). There are three ways to get at training needs:
1. Assuming a performance problem has been identified with a particular group, survey that group for whom training may be needed, their supervisors, the receivers of the product or services provided by that 65 group, and their subordinates, if any. Here the focus is on the group responses which, when analyzed properly, can lead to the preparation of training for individuals, usually in groups.
2. Conduct organizational audits that review production financial, personnel, and other operational data from records and reports to uncover problem areas susceptible to correction through training and/or development. A full functional audit of an area may need to be conducted to get a thorough analysis of the situation. Here the focus is on “results” of activities, and work backward to the causes to identify training needs.
3. Assess an individual’s achievement levels, knowledge’s, potentials, behaviors, skills, and performance; prepare a needs analysis; and plan development and training specifically for that individual. Similar techniques may be used with groups of individuals, but the focus is on the individual, and the outcome should include individual development plans.
1.1.2 TRAINING DESIGN
The design stage of the training follows the TNA stage. During this stage, it is very important that training methods selected must match the training needs, and the training strategy and planning must be appropriate to the training objective and circumstances. The key parties that must be involved in the training design should include the organisation’s representative, the line management, the training manager and/or the training officer and the trainee. The application of the training procedures must be in the hands of personnel who are able to apply a variety of competences in flexible ways to mesh with the organisation’s operational considerations. The decision to determine the appropriate training strategy should be based on the training compatibility with the objectives, estimated likelihood of transfer of learning to the work situation, available resources and trainee related factors. From this, the training can be designed to be on-thejob, planned organisational experience, in-house programs, planned experience outside the organization, external courses, self-managed learning, or a combination of these approaches. In contrast to traditional training, the design of competence-based trainings must be based on explicit and measurable performance because it needs to reflect the actual expectations and performance in the work role.
1.1.3 TRAINING IMPLEMENTATION
Training implementation is putting the training design into practice. The mechanistic “traditional” training approach has now greatly changed, replaced with the modern approach that emphasise more of coaching and facilitating. The training spectrum may vary from highly directive to free-learning, guided-learning, lecture/discussion, presentation, instruction and conditioning for individuals or as a group. The training needs to be different for different people but concurrent with the different kinds of tasks they undertake. In most situations, formal training entails deliberate and structured presentation of experiences and must be related to its purpose. The training policy and plan must be the key reference for implementing training. Task force exercise, case discussion, simulation and games; role-play exercise, group discussion, individual exercise, presentation/lectures and behavior modelling are the common training methods, and may be carried out through external or internal providers. The trainer must be committed and equipped with wide-ranging toolkit of ideas, techniques, methods and approaches which can be adopted as and when most appropriate. On-the-job training is often very effective, flexible and relatively low-cost, but can be ineffective if it is too detached from the actual job-environment or, if it does not follow guidelines of standard training programs. Competence-based training often have modular outlines. It must take into account occupational constraints such as availability of target groups, training premises, possible need for several programs and the atmosphere at the job location. The training activity must be realistic to the preferred learning styles of the target group. The delivery of training or learning needs to be clearly focused on what happens at the job place and not just what happens during the learning/training events
1.1.4 TRAINING EVALUATION
Training evaluation is the assessment of the total value of a training system, which considers the training course or program in technical, social as well as financial terms. It attempt to measure the overall cost benefit of the course. It must encompass a systematic collection of data relevant to the selection, adoption or modification of training and developmental activities, and must be an on-going process from which continuous corrective action can be introduced to ensure an ever-improving training. There are differing views as to who should be evaluating the training, but most views tend to agree that senior managers, line managers, training managers, trainers and learners must be included. It is imperative that evaluations must be impartial. Evaluation should be done before training starts. A baseline data must be established to measure the training program response, on-the-job action, business-focus results and the organisational impact of the training. Post-training evaluation is very important as the training itself is wasted if employees cannot transfer what they have learned. Training effectiveness is the sub-set of evaluation and is the desired outcome of the training evaluation. The explicit and implicit goals of training should be laid down in the cost and benefits analysis. The criteria for determining the extent of indirect and social cost or benefit are very subjective. Training effectiveness is a value judgment, which is contingent upon the context of training; the baseline criteria set as the explicit and implicit training goals; and the accomplishment of these goals. The professional way to determine training effectiveness is often to validate training holistically by taking into account outcomes from both the organisation and the individual
1.2 CONCEPTS USED AND THEIR DEFINITIONS IN THE STUDY
Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one’s capability, capacity, and performance.
Methods of Training:
There are different methods of training for operating personnel (factory workers). Training these workers becomes important because they handle equipment worth crores of rupees.
• On the job training method
Here the employees were divided into groups and one superior is allotted to every group. This superior or supervisor first demonstrates how the equipment must be handled, and then the worker is asked to repeat whatever he has observed in the presence of the supervisor. This method makes it easy for the employee to learn the details about specific equipment. Once the worker studies the first equipment thoroughly the supervisor moves on to the next equipment and so on.

• Apprenticeship training
Here both theory and practical session are conducted. The theory sessions give theoretical information about the plant layout, the different machines, their parts and safety measures etc. The practical sessions give practical training in handling the equipment. The apprentice may or may not be continued on the job after training.
• Job rotation
Here the employees transferred from one equipment to the other for a fixed amount of time until he is comfortable with all the equipments. At the end of the training the employee becomes comfortable with all the equipment. He is then assigned a specific task.
JOB ANALYSIS
Job analysis is the process of determining how work should be organized and performed. It includes activities such as determining the optimal organizational structure, management reporting relationships, division of labour, job roles and responsibilities, job descriptions, required knowledge, skills and attitudes, compensation and rewards. Job analysis may be conducted at many levels and with many purposes in mind. Swanson (1994) has identified three basic types of job performance analysis: Present performance problems, Performance improvement opportunities, and Future performance requirements.
LEARNER ANALYSIS
Learner analysis is the investigation of the current and future audience for training. It is conducted to understand the prerequisite knowledge; skill and experience of the training audience to better target the intended training. It also includes examining the culture, learning styles, background, values and beliefs of the learners so as to match the training design and methodology to the learners.
CONTEXT ANALYSIS
Context analysis examines the environment in which the trainee learns. It includes training environment on the job. It also helps to identify barriers that prevent learning and ways to mitigate these problems.
SKILL-GAP ANALYSIS
Skill-gap analysis is a specialized form of need assessment that examines and documents the gap between employees’ current skill and the skills needed to perform the job successfully. Significant gap between the current performance of employees and the desired or required performance helps the training designers to demonstrate a need for training depending on the skill areas the gaps point at. These skill gaps also help in formulation of objectives and content of training.
1.3 IMPORTANCE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Training has existed from the inception of human being in different forms in the society. It is a medium to pass different skills from one generation to another. But with change in time, the magnitude of training has undergone sea change. Growth and development in technology has developed variety of methods and techniques in the way of training. These changes have added new dimensions to training and influenced the requirement of training. Training of human resource is carried out at macro and micro level. At macro level training is necessary for generating awareness among people on social issues, educating people and spreading literacy in society for giving people an opportunity to live a better life. Training activities at micro level are oriented towards development of people working in the organization to perform better in their job and develop their competency on the job for growth of the organization. Thus every one takes training in some or other form for survival and sustenance on this planet.
1.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
• Since most of the data are kept confidential, its hard to get clarified.
• Time constraints
• Since the sample size is 300 the result may not applicable for all employees.
1.6 PROFILE OF THE INDUSTRY
The construction industry is traditionally divided into three sub-sectors. They are
the construction of buildings , road, highway, and other “infrastructure” construction and specialty trades. It thus encompasses all the businesses that build either houses and office buildings or highways and bridges, as well as those who do the specialized work of electricians, plumbers and masons, who are typically involved in the construction of all kinds of structures. The construction industry is a significant part of our economy, employing over 8 percent of all wage earners.

ROAD AHEAD
Construction sector, which is the second largest employment generator after agriculture, comprising roads, ports, airports, bridges and real estate, has the multiplier potential to create benefits at least double the size of direct inputs, highlighted the study titled Construction industry. In the midst of doom and gloom in the global economy with consequential impact on India, highly job-oriented construction industry can give quite positive results in terms of stepping up economic growth, more employment and raising tax revenue for the government. The output multiplier demonstrates how an increase in demand of Indian construction sector can lead to an increase in overall output of the economy by 2.4 times thereby showcasing strong backward linkages of the sector with ancillary and complementary industries such as cement, steel, iron, bricks, sand, chemicals, heavy machines and equipment, sanitary ware, wood, electrical and other fixtures, paints and others, noted the study. It is an acknowledged fact that construction has the potential to drive and revive manufacturing in any economy. The construction sectors’ contribution to GDP in India has stayed fairly constant at around 7-8% for the last five years. Indian construction industries highly fragmented. There are mostly unorganized players in the industry which work on the sub contracting basis. As the construction activity being labour intensive, construction companies have been mainly focusing on the mechanization over past few years. The Indian construction industry forms an integral part of the economy and a conduit for a substantial part of the development investment, is poised for the growth of industrialization, urbanization, economic development and people’s rising expectation for the improved quality of living. Construction constitutes 40% to 50% of india’s capital expenditure on projects in various sector such as highways, roads, railways, energy, airports, irrigation etc and is the second largest industry in india. The construction industry is a major contributor towards India’s GDP, both directly and indirectly. It employs 33 million people, and any improvements in the construction sector affect a number of associated industries such as cement, steel, technology, skill-enhancement, etc. Construction usually is done or coordinated by general contracts, who specialize in one type of construction such as residential or commercial building. Cost structure of the construction industry is dominated by raw material cost which is the major cost account for30 – 50% of the cost and subcontracting cost accounts for 20-40%. Today Indian sub continent is the second fastest growing economy in the world. The Indian construction industry has been playing a vital role in overall economic development of the country, growing at over 20% compound annual growth rate over past 5 years and contributing 8% to GDP.
1.7 PROFILE OF THE COMPANY
Larsen ; Toubro is a US$14.3 billion technology, engineering, construction and manufacturing and financial services conglomerate. It addresses critical needs in key sectors including infrastructure, construction, hydrocarbon, power, defence and aerospace. Its footprint extends across seven countries in addition to India. A strong, customer-focused approach, conformance to global HSE standards and the constant quest for top-class quality have enabled the Company to sustain leadership in its major lines of business for over 75 years. L;T was rated 58th Most Innovative Company by Forbes International and 4th in the global list of ‘green companies’ in the industrial sector by Newsweek. It was voted among the most admired companies in the country by Fortune India, and rated 8th Most Powerful Brand in India by Brand Finance. It won The Economic Times Corporate Citizen of the Year Award – 2013, instituted by one of the world’s most widely sold business newspapers – The Economic Times. A survey by a leading HR consultancy affirmed its reputation as a people-focused company, leading to the award for the ‘Most Attractive Employer’ in the industrial sector.
HISTORY
The evolution of L&T into a major engineering and construction organisation is among the more remarkable success stories in Indian industry. It was founded in Mumbai (then Bombay) in 1938 by two Danish engineers, Henning Holck-Larsen and Soren Kristian Toubro. Beginning with the import of machinery from Europe, L&T took on engineering and construction assignments of increasing sophistication. Today, the company sets engineering benchmarks in terms of scale and complexity.
1.8 CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY
L&T was the first company in India in the engineering & construction space to publicly disclose its sustainability performance. The Company’s annual Sustainability Reports highlight achievements and objectives across the traditional three ‘Ps’ of Planet, People and Profits. All our Reports are rated A+ by Global Reporting Initiatives, indicating the highest level of disclosure. The recognition that the Company has secured from forums around the world affirm public perception of L;T as an organization that contributes significantly to the wellbeing of people.
RECORD OF ACHIEVEMENTS
• Technological support in the launch and tracking systems for Mangalyaan – India’s Mars Mission, and the only mission to successfully enter Martian orbit in its maiden attempt. Earlier L&T had also contributed to India’s lunar mission.
• Metro projects being executed in Riyadh and Qatar as part of international consortiums.
• Engaged in building major new airports in Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and int5880ernationally, in Sharjah, Oman.
• Building major infrastructure projects including ports, specialised bridges and highway projects.
• Design ; manufacture of a wide range of switchgear products and systems exported to over 30 countries.
1.8.1 L;T HYDROCARBON ENGINEERING
L;T Hydrocarbon Engineering delivers ‘design to build’ engineering and construction solutions on a turnkey basis in the oil ; gas, petroleum refining, chemicals ; petrochemicals and fertilizer sectors. In-house expertise, experience, and strategic partnerships enable it to deliver a single point solution for all projects – from front-end design through engineering, fabrication, project management, construction and installation and commissioning. Modular fabrication facilities at Hazira (India, west coast), Kattupalli (India, east coast) and Sohar (Oman) give L;T all-weather delivery capability. The Company’s operations are characterized by an overriding emphasis on safety, ontime delivery, cost competitiveness, high quality standards with focus on best in class IT security practices. Integrated strengths coupled with an experienced and highly skilled work force, are key enablers in delivering critical and complex projects.
1.8.2 TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE
L&T is engaged in the turnkey construction of major infrastructure projects – expressways, bridges, runways and railway projects. The Company has been a leading player in rail infrastructure development for more than three decades, and has brought in new technologies and mechanised construction. L&T is the only private organisation in India qualified to undertake integrated rail construction projects of the Indian Railways.
1.8.3 HEAVY CIVIL INFRASTRUCTURE
The Company undertakes heavy civil construction – underground metro rail corridors docks, container terminals, wharves and berths, jetties, breakwater and shore protection, and caissons. It has the expertise to design special launching and erection techniques, including special systems formwork for concrete deck on top of steel and concrete structures. Comprehensive engineering, procurement and construction services are offered for hydropower projects. L&T has also played a critical role in the development of technology for India’s nuclear power sector.
1.8.4 BUILDING ; FACTORIES
L;T occupies leadership position in the construction of major airports, IT parks, turnkey hospitals and residential buildings. Building ; Factories Business undertakes projects on a ‘concept to commissioning’ basis. Its technological capabilities encompass tall towers and eco-friendly ‘green’ buildings. Its track record includes landmark structures such as the Baha’i temple in New Delhi.
1.8.5 POWER TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION
The focus is on sub-stations, industrial electrification, transmission line projects and railway construction on the domestic front, and power transmission and distribution projects. L&T has an extensive track record in the Middle East, and is recognised as a major player in the region.
1.8.6 WATER PROJECTS & SOLAR ENERGY
L&T’s Water ; Solar business caters to the entire value chain of water and solar EPC. The water and effluent treatment business covers water intake, transmission, treatment and distribution including industrial waste water treatment ; disposal and ordinary waste water treatment ; reuse segments. The water technology business uses advanced water treatment technologies for complex treatment projects – largely in the Middle East. L;T’s Solar EPC business comprises solar photovoltaic (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP).

1.8.7 METALLURGICAL & MATERIAL HANDLING
This Company undertakes turnkey construction contracts for projects in minerals & metals sector, and bulk material handling projects. It is a leader in all its areas of operations. It has a structural steel fabrication unit at Kanchipuram to meet the customised needs of its wide client base.
1.8.8 POWER
L&T offers turnkey solutions for the power sector with a wide capability spectrum covering supercritical coal and gas based projects. The supercritical technology that L&T propagates is ‘greener’ than conventional techniques and represents a major advantage for industry. L&T’s integrated capabilities and in-house expertise encompass virtually every aspect of design, engineering, manufacture, construction and project management. The Company’s integrated manufacturing facility at Hazira near Surat is among the most advanced in the world for manufacturing state-of-the-art equipment for power plants – boilers, steam turbines, pulverizers, pressure piping, coaxial fans, air-pre-heaters and electrostatic precipitators. The complex also includes a modern casting and foundry shop.
1.8.9 HEAVY ENGINEERING
L&T is acknowledged as one of the top five manufacturing companies in the world in the heavy engineering space. Operating at the higher end of the technological spectrum, L&T’s offerings straddle the segments of process plants and the strategic sectors of defence, nuclear and aerospace. New processes, products and materials have been introduced in manufacturing. The Company also has the logistics capabilities of fabricating and supplying over-dimensional equipment to tight delivery schedules. Globally-benchmarked workshops are located at Powai in Mumbai, Hazira and Baroda in Gujarat, Talegaon in Maharashtra, and Sohar in Oman.
1.8.10 SHIPBUILDING
Two modern shipyards – one on the west coast of India at Hazira, and the other on the east coast at Kattupalli near Chennai establish L;T as a major shipbuilder. A state-of- the-art Marine Design Centre is located at Chennai. L;T Shipbuilding focuses on four major business segments: Building warships, submarines and auxiliary vessels; Building specialized commercial ships; Repairs and re-fits of submarines as well as naval and commercial ships; Ship conversions. The Hazira Shipyard has the capability to build sophisticated mid-sized ships up to 20,000 t deadweight capacity, of 10 metres in length. The mega shipyard at Kattupalli also includes a container port and an offshore modular fabrication yard. It has a waterfront of 2.2 km, depth of 10m at berths and channel depths of 16 m.
1.8.11 ELECTRICAL ; AUTOMATION
L;T is a major international manufacturer of a wide range of electrical and electronic products and systems. In the electrical segment, the Company holds leadership position in low tension switchgear in India, and is rapidly establishing itself in international markets. The product range also includes custom-engineered LV and MV switchboards for industrial sectors like power, refineries, petrochemical, cement. In the electronic segment are a wide range of meters and complete control and automation systems for industries.
1.8.12 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Larsen ; Toubro Infotech, a 100% subsidiary of L;T, offers comprehensive, end-to-end software solutions and services with a focus on Manufacturing, BFSI and Communications ; Embedded Systems. It provides a cost cutting partnership in the realm of offshore outsourcing, application integration and package implementation. Leveraging the heritage and domain expertise of the parent company, its services encompass a broad technology spectrum, catering to leading international companies across the globe.
1.8.13 TECHNOLOGY SERVICES
L;T Technology Services provides leading-edge engineering solutions to multiple industry sectors like automotive, aerospace, consumer electronics, consumer packaged goods, marine, medical devices, off-highway equipment, railways, pharmaceuticals, oil ; gas, utilities, infrastructure and industrial products. With its global headquarters at Vadodara, the Company operates through dedicated engineering centres in tandem with onsite teams worldwide. Its client base includes several Fortune 500 companies.
1.8.14 MACHINERY ; INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS
The Company manufactures, markets and provides service support for industrial products, industrial machinery as well as construction and mining machinery. This includes a wide range of industrial valves for critical applications, rubber processing machinery, surface miners, hydraulic excavators, aggregate crushers and application engineered welding alloys and cutting tools.
1.8.15 INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT
L;T Infrastructure Development Projects Limited, a subsidiary, leverages domain expertise in construction and financial services, and is a major player in Public-PrivateProjects in India. L;T IDPL develops projects in various models – Build Own Transfer, Build Own Operate Transfer, Build Own Operate Share Transfer, and other variants including the annuity model. Major projects being executed by the Company include Hyderabad Metro Rail – the largest public-private rail project in the world, and ports at Dhamra and Kattupalli. Multiple highway projects around the country have established L;T IDPL as the leader in the space.
1.8.16 FINANCIAL SERVICES
L;T Financial Services – a publicly listed subsidiary – is a key player in India’s financial services sector. Its subsidiaries include L&T Finance Limited, L&T Infrastructure Finance Company Limited and L&T Asset Management Company Limited. The Company also provides Insurance related services through L&T General Insurance Company Limited.

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