1(a). job opportunities and extra income, more office

1(a). List FIVE (5) forces of property development.
i. Population growth increase
The demand for property increases as more consumers appear in the market. As marriage and birth rates of a city increase, the demand for residential properties in that city increases. Marriage means the formation of a new family, it leads to the leaving of parental home and jointly own a new home. While increasing in birth rate (increasing in family numbers) has increased the demand for a bigger house. In retail, it’s all about the location, developer will decide according to the population of that area. The reason is that, more population means of more demand for goods and services, therefore more business opportunities are available.
ii. Improvement in economy
A positive, strong and steady economic growth denotes a raising of employment rate, people are able to attain a higher and stable income in this status. Accordingly, home buyers are doing away from the wait-and-see approach (World Finance 2016). Likewise, as extra income attained, people tend to invest on property in order to gain returns in the future. For development of industrial and commercial property, as the high rate of job opportunities and extra income, more office space, factory and retail center are on demand. Therefore, improvement in economy will drives the property development.
iii. Influx of investment
Invest in property is much easier than invest in stock market since it doesn’t need special knowledge to get involved. Accordingly, people tend to do investment in property market when extra money earned. It is a way for them to achieve financial discipline, even to gain returns in future (Philippine Daily Inquirer 2017). The value of property market increases as more people get involved, subsequently it attracts more people to invest. It is note that, not only local but also foreigner will take part in this investment. Therefore, developers will take this opportunity to further expand their development career in order to respond on this status.
iv. Changing of life-style
Recent generation are pursuing for a better quality of life. As they are well-educated, they have more requirements on their life-style in the sectors of safety, cleanliness, healthy, comfortability and sustainability of environment. In order to fulfil these requirements, the concepts and technologies in construction have become more advance and modern. However, people are non-stop in pursuing a much better life-style, as long as they are capable to afford the price, this forces developers keep on invent and improve the design, technology and facilities of the buildings.
v. Rural-urban migration
Living in an urban area is always what people longing for in order to enrich their own lifestyle. Nowadays people tend to had well educated. The reason is that, better education means better job career. The employment rate in urban area is always higher. For this, there is no doubt that living nearby a higher job opportunity is a better choice compared to the rural area. Besides, infrastructure in urban area is more advance and convenience. All of these improved the rural-urban migration, hence population of urban area increases, demand of property increases and boosting the property development.
All these forces are advised to be considered by Mr Alex Pang as he intends to develop both residential and commercial property on his land.?
1(b). Discuss who should be included into the team if the out-of-town retail development carries greater risks than a residential development.
Before making decision for the out-of-town retail development, market research is essential to be done as it helps to foresee the feasibility of the project. A professional marketer will assesses according to current demand and supply on retailing center, location, population, segmentation of consumers, consumers’ preferences, market trend and economic conditions.
An experienced valuer is able to determine the value of land through the location, crime rates, economic climate and any relevant property laws in that area. In case of a commercial property, the valuer needs to assess the business potential. Based on his findings, valuer advises the developer on the value to be spent for developing the out-of-town retail project, providing effective strategies to help the development go through smoothly and also likely on the returns of the development (Sweeney 2014).
Positive growth of a town may cause the occurrence of rural-urban migration hence demand for goods and services in out-of-town area decreases. In such circumstance, out-of-town retail development is discouraged to be proceed. Therefore, if the future growth of a town can be predicted, the risks of out-of-town retail development can be reduced. Urban economist plays an important role in this, he is specialized in analysing the pattern of future growth of a town.
There is no doubt that a professional real estate agent has adequate knowledge in sales and marketing, economics, law and etc. Experienced real estate agent who is familiar with the neighbourhoods of the land to be developed will often know the market trend of that area. Therefore, he is capable to provide information and advices to the developer in the development of an out-of-town retail center (Boone 2017). Due to the nature of work, the network of a real estate agent is wide, he may be able to provide the access to potential retailers. He is also capable to advice on the tenants’ mix in the retail center.
As the development of retail center will locates at out-of-town area, developer may hires a commercial complex property manager to manage it in the future. This profession should be included in the developer’s team since he knows about the challenges that might be faced by a commercial property in future such as security and maintenance issues. The reason is that, it may be hard to find qualified contractors for maintenance. Besides, it is lack of security for a property locates in rural area (Ludwig 2015).
Mr Alex Pang prefers to develop an out-of-town retail center in Klang, Selangor. The above consultants are suggested to be include in his developer’s team in order to help him in evaluation of the riskiness of his development.

1. The table 10.1 in the lab manual portrays the peak 1 and 2 from the gel filtration, the absorbance at 200nm, the molecular weight, the molar absorption coefficient, and the concentration of the protein. The absorbance for peak 1 (ovalbumin) was 1.104 and for peak 2 (cytochrome c) was 0.278 and using the Beer Lambert law it was found that ovalbumin had the higher concentration (in comparison to cytochrome c (. Furthermore, table 11.2 shows the gel filtration values of peak fraction 1 & 2, their respectful absorbance, and the concentration of protein in all found using the pierce 660nm protein assay. The way in which the concentration of protein was determined was by the process of comparing it to the standard curve produced of the 8 solutions from table 10.1. Therefore, it was determined that the average concentration from the standard curve of peak 1 and 2 was 0.157 and 0.073 and this data was significant because it gives us the amount/concentration of protein in each peak fraction; it also describes the highly accurate nature of the pierce 660nm protein assay due.
2. The table 10.1 again shows the data from the respected peak 1 (ovalbumin) and 2 (cytochrome c), the molecular weight, and the concentration- all from the ion exchange column. The results reported that ovalbumin had the higher concentration (1.156*10^-5 M) and absorbance compared to cytochrome (8.37*10^-6 M). This is similar to table 11.3 where there the results show the absorbance & concentration of peak fraction 1 and 2 done through the pierce 660nm protein assay of the ion exchange column. The average concentration for peak 2 was .0245 and 0.190 for peak 1. As a result, the pierce 660nm protein assay is more accurate because it is very sensitive as the absorption maximum changes (due to interaction with proteins in an acidic environment) and so easily identifies which sample as the higher concentration.
3. Table 10.3 depicts 10 different markers, the peak 1 and 2 from both ion exchange column and gel filtration and their respected migration distance, molecular weight, and lastly Rf value. The equation for the Rf is protein migration distance (cm)/dye front migration distance (cm). For gel filtration, peak 1(ovalbumin) had a migration distance of 3.0 and for peak 2(cytochrome c) had a migration distance of 6.3. This data is significant and makes sense since in both gel filtration and ion exchange, cytochrome c traveled further down the plate than ovalbumin due to the lower weight of cytochrome c. Additionally, the data from table 10.3 was used to make a semi-log graph of molecular weight vs Rf value and was used to find the molecular weight of cytochrome c and ovalbumin. Therefore, the molecular weight of ovalbumin was 42 Daltons and that of cytochrome c was 15 Daltons.
4. The main advantage of SDS-Page gel compared to immunoblot is that SDS-Page gel identifies all your proteins in the sample, while immunoblot is more specific to the target it identifies. SDS-Page analysis is sensitive to proteins that fall in the range of 25 to 2,000 and the advantage is that the presence of reducing agents/detergents do not interfere with the assay (Hayden-Mcneil). On the other hand, due to the use of antibodies by immunoblot it is more specific to your target protein you want to identify. Lastly, it is significant to note one similarity between SDS-Page and immunoblot is that ovalbumin, cytochrome c, and b-galactosidase all eluded in the same relative order.

1. What is Panera Bread’s strategy? Which of the five generic competitive strategies discussed in Chapter 5 most closely fit the competitive approach that Panera Bread is taking? What type of competitive advantage is Panera Bread trying to achieve?
Panera Bread’s strategy is to offer the upscale and quick-serving meals to urban workers and suburban dwellers. Panera Bread is taking the focused differentiation competitive approach. According to the case, Panera Bread targets on the urban workers and suburban dwellers market, providing them with high-quality foods at a price presenting a good value and aesthetically pleasing dining experiences that are better than its competitors. The competitive advantage Panera Bread is trying to achieve is to provide upscale, quick-service and high-quality dining to consumers.

2. What does a SWOT analysis of Panera Bread reveal about the overall attractiveness of its situation? Does the company have any core competencies or distinctive competencies?

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Through the SWOT analysis, Panera Bread’s overall situation is attractive. It can take the advantages of these opportunities mentioned above through continue exploiting its competitive advantage-providing upscale and quick-service dining experience-in its expanded market and international market to obtain revenues. Also, it can continue to update its menus to keep up with consumers’ eating preferences to increase and retain the customers. Moreover, Panera Bread needs to cut its high operating costs by eliminating some unnecessary activities. Additionally, Panera Bread needs to continue to maintain its strength, offering a strong basis for the competition in the restaurant market.
The company did have core competencies, including franchise strategy and periodically updated new menus built on bakery expertise.

1. Definition/ explanation of the selected ideas, cases
United States is a nation of immigrants, comprises diverse racial groups with a large number of single race white, Hispanic, black and also Asian community. Today, the society accepts that diversity is the strength of the USA as it is playing a vital role in America economic, cultural development. So for Chinese non-immigrants and immigrants, the pursuit of the American Dream is the common factors for them to come to the USA. The American Dream is the idea that anyone willing to work hard and think ambitious can come to the US and “make it” according to their ability and achievement and regardless of their racial identity. Looking back into history, the coming of Chinese non-immigrants and immigrants contributed to the national greatness and propensity, many of them are especially valued by the science and innovation strength in United States. However, it seems that the treatment the Chinese received in the United States was unequal almost from the start. In United States, the value of equality claims that all men were born equal with the same right and no one could dominate or take the right away from others. But at a time when both Chinese non-immigration and immigration visa issues are becoming a divisive, hot-button political hotspot, is value of diversity and equality and American dream still possible for Chinese?

Starting from February 2017, the United States began to perform the random phone-call survey one to three days before the visa interview on Chinese applicants who are planning to study in America; what’s more, the original provision regulated that “for those whose US visa is due within 48 months can renew the visa service without interview “, but now the term is reduced to only “within 12 months”. At the same time, immigration policy for Chinese has been tightened as well. At the president campaign stage, one of Trump’s most distinctive slogans is to drastically adjust the immigration policy, as he came to power, Trump started to stop spouses of H-1B Visa holders from working in USA in 2017. Apart from that, one of his 10 Points Immigration Plan includes “Immediately terminate President Obama’s two illegal executive amnesties. All immigration laws will be enforced”, which showed that anyone who enters the U.S. illegally is subject to deportation. According to American immigration officials, nearly 39 thousand Chinese citizens are waiting to be expelled for breaches of the US immigration law. Therefore, the days of illegal Chinese immigrants will be much more difficult than before. In addition to restrictions on students or immigrants’ visas, the White House has considered ending a program allowing frequent Chinese travelers to the U.S. to get 10-year visas.

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2. Summary of the selected case study
From above information, coupled with Trump’s first Nation Security Strategy Report after his taking office, we can see the United States is tightening both the immigrant and non-immigrant visas system for Chinese citizens who plan to enter the United States to pursue specific goals or activities. And in summary of the cases, because of the visa issues, some Chinese believe that the United States will no longer be the first choice for them to pursue their dreams and achievement; For American citizens, Trump is trying to reduce the number of ‘Chinese outsiders’ by tightening the visas, in order to protect citizens’ valuable employment opportunities.

3. Application: how the case study reflects the idea?
In terms of the ideas reflected by the cases, for those who disapproved of Trump’s limitation hold the opinion that the practices may contradict the value of diversity, equality, and most importantly it is slamming the doors on many Chinese students or visitors’ American dreams.

Above all, by shutting out the Chinese citizens, Trump returns to the practice of isolationism, which contradicts the highly praised value of diversity. Why diversity is such a significant value for the United States? I think we can find answers from the practice of affirmative action, which is implemented in the areas of employment, education, and business, in order to preserve race-based admissions and achieve racial diversity. For example, global businesses supported race-based admission policies because they felt it important to employ and maintain a diverse workforce; the supreme court approved race-conscious university admissions as racial diversity in higher education is essential to American political stability, and economic development. However, by decreasing the visa numbers of Chinese workers or students, Trump is opposing diversity of composition in American society.

Trump’s limitation can be also considered as a kind of inequality for Chinese students. According to the immigration experts, international immigrants especially Chinese immigrants contribute a lot to the economic and cultural aspects of the United States, and the government should not take the lead in limiting immigrants to the United States, which is unfair to Chinese. For example, Chinese students with self-funding contributes to the financial resources of American universities. A senior Nicole Wang from Guangzhou, China, believes that “These students are contributing to the university’s infrastructure … So it would be helpful for them to see that they are valued by the university.”

Lastly, Trump’s limitation of Chinese visas is un-American. By banning certain Chinese students or immigrants from coming to the USA, Trump smashes millions of the American Dreams. Just as China has experienced a remarkable economic ascent, Chinese Americans are modern exemplars of the “American Dream,” going from servitude to success in 150 years. For many Chinese, it’s a story repeated throughout cultures that the penniless immigrant arrives on American shores seeking a new life and, through hard work and determination, prospers and thrives. Such tales are a quintessential part of the “American Dream”, but by tightening Chinese students’ visas, Trump is depriving the opportunities for them to pursue their American dreams.

3. Critical analysis
However, putting down the Asian identity, are Trump’s policies the right ones? From the angle of approving the restrictions, Trump’s limitation helps to sustain American own greatness, pursue citizens’ own American dreams and enhance the superiority of global talent competition of the United States.

Mark Krikorian, the executive director of the Center for Immigration Studies, firmly disagrees the opinion that America is missing out by not opening its doors to immigrants. “Whose American Dream are we talking about?” he asks. “Immigration policy is a boon for the immigrants coming here. But what about the American dreams of Americans?” In 2006, Chinese students accounted for 11.6 percent of the total number of international students in the United States, and China has ranked first, or second to India, in numbers of students studying in the United States. For American students, high quality Chinese students and faculties make American universities more competitive, which lead local students to spend more effort studying. In spite of this, skilled immigrants from China and India have been a source of innovation strength for the United States, locals who have lower ability of technology and math always lost their places to Chinese. Besides the ‘threaten’ of Chinese students and skilled immigrants, illegal Chinese immigrants also take the jobs opportunities away from the hands of the local, which ‘rob’ their American dreams in a way. According to a report released by an Immigration Policy Institute in Washington, there are 210 thousand illegal Chinese citizens living in the United States in 2012, and they are still flooding the American market, competing with American workers. In the U.S., workers have been replaced by low-cost foreign workers. As a result, for more than 25 years a huge number of Americans have experienced stagnant wages and incomes, with trade agreements exacerbating the problem. For American, anybody who needs a leg up in the labor market, in particular young workers who don’t have college, handicapped people or recovering drug addicts, sees his prospects sabotaged by illegal workers.
Trump’s limitation on Chinese visas is a kind of way to sustain American own greatness, pursue citizen’s own American dreams. We can see that the rise of Donald Trump to the top of the United States Republican Party is not as incredible as establishment pundits profess, in fact, he is the voice for an increasing number of Americans. Analyzing from the positions of American students and high-skilled employees, Trump’s policy may improve their competitiveness in the global talent market, which enhances the superiority of local’s competition and protect their own American dreams. And as low-skilled immigration isn’t good for American competitiveness in the long run, Trump is maintaining the good slogans about American greatness.
4. Personal opinion
In my opinion, stronger limits on Chinese both immigrants and nonimmigrants visas are depriving many Chinese rights to pursue the American dream, also it is a kind of talent outflow for United States. If Trump administration attempts to restrict student visas, Chinese students may look to study in other nations as United States is no longer a golden place for them to pursue the happiness and dreams. We can see from the news that many tech companies and scholars have raised their voices against President Trump’s Jan. 27 executive order on immigration in 2017, since hundreds of researchers and high-skilled workers who could be affected by the travel ban are parts of the large U.S. innovation company, which relies heavily on foreign talent in particular Chinese. So White House proclamation on visas and immigration has serious implications for diplomatic and humanitarian, in part because it weakens U.S. science and engineering capacity.
However, the limitations enhance the superiority of global talent competition of the United States, it protects the American dreams of Americans. By decreasing Chinese immigrants, more job opportunities are promised for American high-skilled workers. Taking about illegal Chinese immigrants again, although there are certainly examples of undocumented immigrants becoming prosperous, they are mostly concentrated in low-paying jobs and have essentially no power to bargain for improved conditions. Some businesses have sought to evade the inconvenient immigration restriction, resulting in the displacement of workers by low-cost foreign labor, which depressed the underprivileged local. Therefore, in this case, Trump is trying to opening the path to success for his citizens, he’s limitation does not mark a grand departure from Chinese’ American dream, but rather presents American own values, benefits in their ugliest, most flagrant and unapologetic form.

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