1

1. Introduction
Without the fluctuation of exchange rate, the economy and the world enjoys a pleasant and diplomatic trading atmosphere. Trading activities and foreign direct flows will run smoothly. No foreign currency will be exchanged leaving the home country lamenting. A country will not be afraid to allow foreign investors to invest and vice versa. The country will gain a balance of payment surplus hence the economy will boom. When exchange rates fluctuation set in, a depreciation in the home currency will lead to a lower capital investment to foreign investors, decline in export prices in a foreign currency while increasing import prices in the domestic currency causing and economy downturn.
The Chinese economy continues to grow fast by international standards as it enters the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016-20). While growth is still high but gradually and appropriately moderating as the population ages and the economy rebalances from investment to consumption ,GDP per capital remains on course to almost double between 2010 and 2020. As a result, the Chinese economy will remain the major driver of global growth for the foreseeable future. (OECD, 2017; p.6). China’s growth has long been driven by capital accumulation, supported by high savings. China’s share of global economy was 14.8% in 2015 with nominal GDP of $11.0 trillion (visual capitalist 2017). According to Rodrik (2006, p.1), “China’s economy has expanded by leaps and bounds, at historically extraordinary rates that few economists would have found plausible or feasible ex-ante”. The rapid growth of China has also been paralleled by its emergence as a major trading power in the world. In 2014, China exported goods with a total value of more than 2.3 trillion U.S. dollars and imported goods with a value of 1.96 trillion U.S. dollars, making it the leading export and second largest import country worldwide. In 2015, China was ranked second among the countries with the largest gross domestic product, following the United States (statista 2018).
The growth of China’s trade with Africa mimics its trade in the world, though starting from a low level. Bilateral trade between China and Africa stood at $149.1 billion in 2016. Trade between Africa and China is shooting up by 19 percent every year. In the first half of 2017, they totalled more than $85.3 billion in value. Chinese imports from the African continent almost doubled by an estimated 46 percent, compared to the same period a year ago reaching around $38.4 billion China is currently Africa’s largest trading partner. China has vigorously defended its economic and trade relations with African countries. It needs more natural resources such as oil, gas, and minerals for its rapidly growing economy, while Africa needs more investment in basic infrastructure to develop its potential. Africa has already attained a trade deficit with china as the nature of its bilateral trade with china raises an alarm as exports to china are mainly focused around a limited number of products mostly classified as commodities. The level at which a slowdown in bilateral trade will affect African exports depends on how exposed these commodities are to shifts in Chinese demand.
African exporters will be affected greatly as china has started to slowdown as a result of its rebalancing towards more sustainable direction. A slowing china in the context of economic rebalancing will lead to a drop in demand for most African commodities such as minerals, iron ore and oil. This will affect mostly countries which benefit the most from Chinese trade like Cameroon. After independence, Cameroon pursued a policy of import-substitution through the promotion of the competitiveness of local industries and the processing of local raw materials, with the hope of fostering the growth and development of the country. Nowadays, Cameroon does not have any official policy to protect local industries against cheap Chinese imports. Both countries are members of the WTO, which works against trade protection and Cameroon is constrained by it sub-regional obligations from negotiating unilateral trade deals with China. It will be interesting therefore to know how Cameroon will deal with the entry of cheap imports from China and the threat to its industrialization effort. Since the introduction of the floating exchange rate system during the 1970s, many studies have been presented to show the relationship between exchange rate fluctuations and international trade. Most studies have provided evidence that the increase of exchange rate volatility dampens international trade as expected. Sherzod (2007), BAAK (2008), Kurihara (2013), Nicita (2013), Basirat et al (2014), Hou (2014), TWAMUGIZE et al (2017) showed increased exchange rate fluctuations impact negative effects on international trade, especially exports

1.1. Background and Context
Recently there is being an unusually change in exchange rate. Since mid-2014, the Dollars has appreciated in real effective terms by more than 10 %, while the Euro has lost more than 10 % of its value. In mid-2016, the devaluation of the Nigerian naira against the Dollar led to a significant imbalance in the financial sector as exchange rate volatility fell. Since the beginning of 2017, Chinese yuan has appreciated by about 10 percent against the Dollars.
This unusual large exchange rate changes is causing a typical fluctuation in currencies affecting more emerging markets and developing economies (EMDEs) than advanced economies (AEs). China has faced three sequential years of depreciation. In 2015 Chinese yuan had depreciated quite a lot against the dollars. The main reason was to make export attractive due to economy slowdown. Due to the oil crisis which affected many countries, there was sluggishness in Chinese export and the best way to stimulate the economy was by depreciation.
The CFA franc has depreciated by about 35 percent against the dollars. The CFA franc has been pegged to the Euro (1 Euro = 655.957 FCFA) with convertibility guaranteed by France since 1999 as it lost half of its value in 1994 after a serious devaluation. The CFA franc follows the appreciation and depreciation of the Euro. Normally an appreciation of the euro against the dollar makes import cheaper but reduces the value in terms of exports earnings by undermining industrial development in the CFA member countries. Moreover, because export earnings are generally reported in dollars, the CFA zone must often convert into euros. One of the benefits of the CFA franc is that it enjoys the fixed parity vis-à-vis the Euro.
It is important to know that, an exchange rate regime categorized as “pegged” does not certainly means it will have a lower exchange rate fluctuation than unpegged currencies. A currency pegged to an anchor currency exposes the country to fluctuation in the anchor against other currencies. A peg that turn out to be misaligned can create exchange market pressure and distinct changes in currency values which will further lead to exchange rate fluctuation.
Currency fluctuation has huge consequences on design of optimal policies and trade competitiveness. Standard theoretical models predicts that change in currency directly affect consumer prices. A domestic devaluation will cause a decline in export prices in a foreign currency while increasing import prices in the domestic currency, hence leads to more exports and less imports (Leigh et al, 2017).The value of trade between US-Euro area and that of the Euro area-China is less affected by currency fluctuations than US-China which is suggested that its trade imbalance is caused by many factors including exchange rate.
Exchange rate plays a significant part between a country and its global supply chains. The effects of a decrease or increase in exchange rate on any finished product might be complex since export usually include a great proportion of imports (i.e. for any given exporter, the price of imported products increases). For domestic producers, if devaluation of exchange rate reduces the cost of the final product exported, it increases the price of the imported product.
Research have shown that, exchange rate does not only affect international trade but also foreign investment flows and the debt servicing. According to Bourdon and Korinek (2011) depreciation in a country’s currency implies that the nominal value of debt denominated in foreign currencies increases relative to the country’s resources in local currency whereas its local-currency denominated debt decreases in value for foreign creditors. Therefore a depreciation in a currency will lead to a cheaper capital investment to foreign investors.
The bond between exchange rate and international trade relates to exchange rate fluctuation. The simple reason why a rise in exchange rate will lead to a decline in international trade is that of risk and transaction cost connected to exchange rate hence reducing trade. Currency exchange rates are being influenced by the balance of trade through its effect on the supply and demand for foreign exchange. When a country’s export isn’t equal to its import, it means there is either more demand or supply for the country’s currency, which affects the price of that currency on the world market.
Cameroon has been trading with China even before the establishment of diplomatic relations in1971. The value of trade leaped to more than US$2.251 billion in 2014, up from only about US$1.850 billion in 2013. In 2015, trade between the two countries dropped to US$2.049 billion. Trade between Cameroon and China has increased significantly over the past 15 years. China’s imports from Cameroon have consisted largely of oil, wood and cotton products (Jansson, 2009). Currently three Chinese companies are either prospecting or extracting iron ore or oil in Cameroon (Weng et al., 2015). One is Sino Steel, a national iron ore company based in Yaoundé, another is the Chinese private company, Hanlong Ltd., Which is linked to a controversial iron ore project in the rainforests of the Congo Basin in Southeast Cameroon. The third is a Chinese oil exploration company, Yanchang Logone Ltd, which operates in far north Cameroon. Cameroon’s main trading partners and sources of both foreign investment and development assistance are China, France, India, Spain, and the Netherlands, all members of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). These countries are also the main export destinations for Cameroon. Other traditional export destinations are Nigeria and the United States.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

1.2. Scope and Objectives (edited after chapter 4)
This research was conducted with profound interest in in international trade. International trade nowadays is at the heart of the global economy and is responsible for much of the development and prosperity of the modern industrialized world. Many studies have been presented to show the relationship between exchange rate fluctuations and international trade since the introduction of the floating exchange rate system. The scope of my research was to acquire the fundamental knowledge as current as possible. Cameroon was the main focus as its economy is been affected by Chinese goods.
The main objective of this study was to empirically analyse the relationship between exchange rates and international trade and assess its impact on the Cameroonian economy. The specific objectives are:
? To analyze Cameroon’s economic structure and performance, paying particular attention to the role of trade with China.
? To analyze Cameroon’s trade (export and imports) structure and evolution, by key sectors, with specific focus on China’s contribution;
? To identify and analyze opportunities derivable by Cameroon and challenges from its trading relationship with China;
? Based on the findings to make appropriate recommendations.

1.3. Achievements
The achievements of this study lies on the recommendation made at the end of the study and their implementation. In general, the research is immense benefit to the following:
1. Importers and exporters who always trade and are in need of direct finance.
2. Policy makers of BEAC (Banque des Etats de l’Afrique Central) who issue guideline governing international trade practices.
3. Banks especially the commercial banks.
4. Students of banking and finance who might take a cue from the work done have to further research into the field of exchange rate fluctuations and international trade.
5. The general public who have a right to contribute and informed to the activities of our banking institutions.
It is hoped that the, findings and recommendations of this study will be of great importance to the above mentioned group.

.
1.4. Overview of Dissertation
Today, international trade is at the heart of the global economy and is responsible for much of the development and prosperity of the modern industrialized world. The introduction elaborates the problem statement of the research. The introductory background provides information about exchange rate and international trade and also the past and current trade between Cameroon and China and how the trade has increased significantly. Also described in the introductory chapter are my achievements and Scope and objectives of my research. The second section presents the detailed literature review of most sources of information used in the research. The third chapter of the thesis is reserved for methodology. The first part we used primary data in which a questionnaire was administered and the second part we use secondary data to explain Cameroon-China trade relations including the exports to China and imports from china. The fourth chapter is for empirical analysis where we analyse our results from the questionnaire and conclude whether there is a significant relationship between exchange rate and international trade between Cameroon and china. The last part of the thesis is the conclusion in which the research is summarized and policy suggestions are provided to help solve and avoid the current challenges faced.

1 | P a g e

Topic Name: Pathophysiology – Burns
Student Name and ID
numbers :
Maryam Wasil A Jastaniah
U17104929
Section No.: 72
Instructor: Dr. Maha

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

2 | P a g e

Topic: Burns
What is Burns ?
Burns are injuries initiated due to therma l, chemical, electrical, physical agents of
local and systemic repercussions or effects. Also, burns are considered to be one of
the most mortifying forms of traumatic injuries as it has caused so many victims to
suffer severely through the years.
Thermal burns are due to sources of heat that would significantly increase the
temperature of the skin causing damage of skin and cells.
Radiation burns are caused by being exposed to sources of radiation for a long
period of time such as sunlight and x -rays.
Chemical burns are caused by strong chemicals coming in contact with the skin or
eyes such as acids, detergents, alkali, etc.
Electrical burns , from its name is from electrical currents which could be direct or
alternating currents.

Classification of Burns
When classifying burns, the extent and depth of the burns are the most important
factors to be considered.
The extent of a burn is usually calculated by %TBSA (percentage of the Total Body
Surface Area) that has been burned. This could be done through sev eral methods
such as:
? Rule of Nines

3 | P a g e

? Lund and Browder Chart
? Palmar Surface
The depth of a burn depends on how deeply and how severely a burn injury has
penetrated the skin’s surface. The burn depths are classified as degrees:
? First -degree Burns (superficial): affect epidermis or outer layer of
skin. Burn site is red in color, painful, dry and has no blisters. Could
be caused by mild sunburn where long term damage of the tissue is
rare.

? Second -degree Burns (partial thickness): affect epidermis and
part of the dermis layer of the skin. Burn site is red in color,
blistered, could be painful and appear to be swollen.

? Third -degree Burns (full thickness): the epidermis and dermis
are destroyed and could affec t the subcutaneous tissue, the burn
site may be white or charred.

? Fourth -degree Burns : damage the underlying bones, muscles, tendons and
destroy the nerve endings resulting in no sensation in the area.

4 | P a g e

Assessment of Burns Using: Rule of Nines
Assessing a burn using the Rule of Nines is used to make the right treatment decisions
including fluid replacement or resuscitation – due to extreme fluid loss caused by
removal of the skin barrier on burn victims . The percentage of total body surface
area (%TBSA) that has been burned is estimated in multiples of nine.
The Rule of Nines is usually used in adults more than infants to assess second -degree
and third -degree burns as they are more severe and more traumatic than first -degree
burns. The percentage s are estimated based on different body areas:
? The Entire Head: 9%
? The Entire Trunk: 36%
? The Upper Extremity: 18%
? The Lower Extremity: 36%
? The Groin: 1%
(Note: each body area is divided into posterior – anterior OR right –left, depending
on the area. For example, the head = 4.5% anteriorly, 4.5% posteriorly.)
The factors that could slightly affect the Rule of Nines are the Body Max Index
(BMI) and age of the burn victim.

Effect of Burn Injury
Severe burn injuries tremendously effect the body. Burn victims usually go through
metabolic stress, meaning they become hyper metabolic and almost everything in
the body te nds to work faster. The blood pressure rapidly increases as well as the
heart rate, nutritional needs and pain – pain management becomes a priority.

5 | P a g e

If the case is severe enough it could cause multiorgan failure where the heart could
shut down and the lun gs may be brutally affected. Along with that, these failures
could also lead to the victim’s kidneys to shut down and possibly infect the liver.
Extensive burns could also affect the immune system (generalized suppression).
Burn victims become more prone t o bacterial infections, this is due to depressed
complement levels and the reduction of neutrophil chemotaxis as well as
cytotoxicity.
Burns could cause both local and systemic responses : if the burn is less than 25% of
the total body surface are (TBSA) it causes a local response, if the burn is more than
25% of the total body surface area (TBSA) it produces both local and systemic
responses – considered more major injuries.
Still under the metabolic stress response, there is also an inflammatory hyper
catabolic response where there are higher levels of cytokines. These cytokine levels
elevate persistently and are directly related to age as well as the severity of the burn.
Major burn injuries could also effect :
? The Skeletal Muscles.
? The Bones.
So, the effects of burn injury on skeletal muscles include the turnover of muscle
protein, alteration of the protein metabolism and the mediators and of course the
functional impacts – muscle cachexia. These changes would t remendously impact
the locomotion and homeostasis of protein, lipids and glucose metabolism.
Muscle Protein Turnover in Burn Patients : The body proteins constantly synthesize
and break down resulting in a decrease of muscle mass also leading to an inadequate

6 | P a g e

count of amino acids. This could cause organ failure as there may be a decrease in
blood circulation to specific organs.
Mediators of Altered Protein Metabolism Following Burns: Other th an the
breakdown of body proteins and amino acids, there are still factors such as the
resistance to insulin, the increase of stress hormones, an elevation of muscle wasting
after burn. Immobilization is also another factor, which is usually caused by the
several surgical procedures of more severe cases. Being bedridden or immobilized
postop increases the muscle deterioration or wasting.
Muscle Cachexia: A wasting syndrome where there is a significant loss in weight,
muscle (atrophy) and appetite. A burn su rvivor with this syndrome would face
fatigue, an increase in psychological distress, limitations of motion and self -care.
Effect of Burn on Bone: Severe burns cause an increase in bone resorption and
osteoclasts. There could also be a great chance of osteoporosis, significant decrease
in bone mass, etc.
There are so many effects all according to the severity of the burn, keep in mind that
burn survivors might not only be effected as an individual but the whole family or
caretaker would also be affected as they would have to provide assistance during
recovery.

Management of Burns
1. First Aid
2. Medical Management
3. Surgical Management

7 | P a g e

The way you react and treat a burn during the first minutes after being injured can
really affect how severe the injury could get.
First Aid, immediate treatment:
Burn victims must “Stop, Drop & Roll” to put out any live flames and victims should
remove any burned clothing. If any clothing tends to stick to the skin DO NOT pull
on it, just cut around the burned area where it is adhered. Also any jewelry, tight
clothing or belts should be removed from burned areas and around the neck as the
skin starts to swell immediately after a burn.
Medical Management , treatment slightly differs depending on type of burn:
? First -degree Burns:
Apply or immerse in cool, fresh water until pain is reduced.
Cover the burn with sterilized – non -adhesive bandages or cloth.
Pain medication may be used to reduce pain and inflammation.
Seek medical attention only if the burn covers a very large area.

? Se cond -degree Burns:
For ten to fifteen minutes immerse area in fresh, cool water (dry & cover with clean
cloth, sterilized gauze).
DO NOT break blisters.
Take steps to prevent shock (lay flat, feet elevated approximately twelve inches,
covered with coat or blanket) – DO NOT take these steps if head, leg, back or neck
injury is suspected or even if it is just too discomforting.
Further medical treatment is a must.

8 | P a g e

? Third -degree Burns:
Cover burn (with material that will not leave any lint residue on the burn) .
Take steps to prevent shock.
If the face is burned, the victim must sit up – beware of any breathing problems.
Burned area should be elevated above head if possible.
IMMEDIATE medical attention is required.

(In all types of burns do not use any ointment s or butter on the burns as it may cause
infection)

Surgical Management, Managing the Wound:
For any surgical intervention to succeed, the right operation must be done at the right
time. The two basic concepts that are used to manage a burn wound are: 1) Delayed
excision, and 2) Early excision. Depending on how severe the burn injury, it might
be required to apply both concepts but it is more common in most cases to use the
delayed excision.
After reconstructive surgery in severe cases, the patient may have to go through the
process of removing dead tissue. Then comes the plastic surgery intervention which,
according to the case, a treatment is chosen.
In plastic surgery several treatments are used, including:
? Skin Grafts : are the most common when treati ng burn patients, it is where skin
is removed from one are of the body and is transplanted and relocated where
needed.

? Microsurgery : during a burn incident, the patient may lose a finger, a toe, an
ear or even a lip in some cases. This treatment, these bo dy parts can be re –
attached and this surgery is usually used with the free flap procedure.

9 | P a g e

? Free Flap Procedure : a procedure used during reconstruction where the
muscles, skin or the bones are transferred within the original blood supply (in
transplants).

? Tissue Expansion : this procedure is used to help the patient’s body kind of
“grow” extra skin, which could be needed in reconstruction surgery. The skin
is stretched by applying a balloon expander under or near the area in need of
repair. Th is causes the tissue to expand (stretch ; grow), then it is used to
basically reconstruct or correct the areas or body parts that were damaged
during the burn.

In conclusion, the techniques always vary according to the severity of the burn and
the age of the victim. Burns are very severe traumatic injuries which have the
possibility of affecting all ages. The steps to help a victim should be taken very
seriously to avoid worsening the patients status.

10 | P a g e

References:
Efstathia Polychronopoulou, David N Herndon, Craig Porter; The Long -Term Impact of Severe Burn
Trauma on Musculoskeletal Health, Journal of Burn Care ; Research , Volume 39, Issue 6, 23
October 2018, Pages 869 –880, https://doi.org/10.1093/jbcr/iry035
https://www.arthroplastyjournal.org/article/S0950 -3501(97)80019 -0/pdf
https://www.webmd.com/skin -problems -and -treatments/plastic -surgery -burns#1
https://www.cdc.gov/masstrauma/factsheets/public/burns.pdf
https://www.omicsonline.org/open -access/burns -definition -classification -pathophysiology -and -initial –
approach -2327 -5146 -1000298.php?aid=93503
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK 430741/
https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?ContentTypeID=90;ContentID=P09575
https://www.emedicinehealth.com/burn_percentage_in_adults_rule_of_nines/article_em.htm
https://www.verywellhealth.com/burn -pictures -4020409
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513287/
https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/dermatology/burns_85,P01146
https://www.sharecare.com/health/burns/how -burns -affect -the -body
https://www.scribd.com/doc/36331191/Local -and -Systemic -Response -to-Burns

1. Introduction.
Blood is the kind of sample most regularly dissected in the clinical lab. Phlebotomy is a procedure for which a needle is used to draw blood from a vein; usually, to do laboratory tests. The professional who do this procedure is called Phlebotomist. There sources where you can draw blood from, this source are venipuncture and capillary or peripheral blood.
1.1 The purpose of this laboratory experiment is for student to learn how to obtain an adequate blood for laboratory tests by drawing blood from a vein.

2. Methods and Materials
2.1 Venipuncture.
1. Approach the patient, identify yourself, the department you represent, and the procedure you are about to perform., identify the patient and explain the procedure to the patient.
2. Assemble equipment and supplies.
3. Prepare the vacuum blood collection system by attaching the needle to the hub and positioning a tube in the holder.
4. Apply the tourniquet and examine the arm for palpable veins.
5. Palpate the veins.
6. Release the tourniquet, cleanse the chosen site with a 70% alcohol swab. Begin at the puncture site selected and move the alcohol pad outward, in concentric circles (experienced phlebotomists are so quick that they may not release the tourniquet during site preparation).
7. Allow the site to air dry.
8. Reapply the tourniquet, making sure that the ends do not touch the prepared site.
9. Ask patient to clench fist tightly.
10. Position the holder in the palm of your hand between your thumb and index finger. Your palm should be pointing to the left if you are right-handed, and to the right if you are left-handed.
11. Uncap the needle. Inspect the needle for manufacturer’s defects.
12. Anchor the vein selected, using the thumb and index finger.
13. Position the needle in the same direction as the vein selected. Insert the needle, bevel up, at a 15-degree angle. The needle should be inserted in one smooth motion. Only the index finger and thumb should move forward to guide the needle into the vein.
14. Release the vein and push the evacuated tube onto the back of the needle. Be sure to keep the holder stationary. Once the tube has been pushed onto the needle, take your hand off the tube. If the stopper of the tube has been punctured by the back of the needle, and blood is not entering the tube, pushing on the tube will not cause blood to enter it.
15. Allow the tube to fill, when the vacuum has been exhausted, blood will no longer enter the tube.
16. Keeping the holder still, pull the evacuated tube of the back of the needle and replace it with the second tube (if the first tube contained an additive, gently invert it while waiting for the second tube to fill).
17. Once blood begins to enter the second tube, release the tourniquet within one minute of application.
18. Pull the evacuated tube off the needle. Allow it to rest in the holder.
19. Place a piece of gauze or a cotton ball over the puncture site, do not push down on the gauze.
20. Remove the needle from the patient’s arm and immediately apply pressure with the gauze.
21. Activate the needle safety device and dispose of unit.
22. If the last evacuated tube collected contains an additive, invert gently several times to mix the blood with the additive.
23. Inspect puncture site, apply bandage if needed.
24. Label the tubes collected IMMEDIATELY as follows
25. Discard materials in appropriate waste receptacle and disinfect work area.
26. Remove gloves, wash hands and leave patient courteously.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

2.2 Capillary puncture.

1. Approach the patient, identify yourself, the department you represent, and the procedure you are about to perform. Using two unique patient identifiers, confirm the identity of the patient.
2. Check requisition order to ensure proper collection of samples.
3. Assemble all the necessary equipment’s.
4.Assess the patient and determine whether a finger or a heel would be appropriate for use. Heels are preferred for capillary puncture in infants less than 1 year of age.
5.The site of blood collection must be warm to ensure the free flow of blood.
6.Hold the area to be punctured with the thumb and index finger.
7.Clean the area with 70% alcohol pad and allow to air-dry.
8.Use a disposable sterile lancet to puncture the area.
9.Wipe away first drop of blood.
10.Apply gentle pressure to area to obtain a suitable specimen. When the tip of the collection tube touches this drop, blood will flow into the tube by capillary action into the bottom of the tube.
11.When the necessary amount of blood is obtained, clean gauze is used to apply gentle pressure on the puncture site. Bandage the site.
12. Discard used lancets at the sharps container.
13. Remove gloves and discard into biohazard container
14. Wash hands using proper procedure

1. Successful projects are important to Hewlett Packard because that allows them to grow and generate new products, services, and procedures. An increase in revenue means they get capital to work on new projects. Successful projects also increase the reputation of a company which will have a positive impact on their future and allow them to be leaders in the industry. If projects fail, HP risks falling behind against rivals, as well as financial losses.
2. The evaluation team should quantify project contributions rationally, meaning anything that could influence the current marketing performance of the company should be taken into consideration. If the business environment changes, the mission and goals of the company may need to change too, and the evaluation team should adapt to those changes as well. The financial selection is important because its what ensures projects generate adequate return on investment. They also make sure financial success is reflected in the portfolio of projects rather than in the financial contributions of individual projects, the emphasis is on supporting business goals rather than personal agendas.
3. The reason considerable attention is paid to the measures HP uses to evaluate its projects is to support the success of the business. When you prioritize projects efficiently you’re able to get more work done and develop an understanding of the company’s strategy, this results in continued success and aligns with business objectives.
4. The aggregate project plan illustrates the number of projects, their size, history, timing, and where they fall on the scales of innovation for processes and products visually, so its easy to understand. You’re able to compare the types of projects being conducted and different project portfolio proposals. The plan of record records the results of the selection process. You’re able to see the priority and headcount of each project, as well as “out-plan” projects.
5. Out-plan projects should only be reconsidered for inclusion when they have a positive effect on the marketing performance, they also have to fit the current business environment. They also may be placed in the pipeline during a review of the portfolio of projects.
6. I was impressed by how HP carefully selects and invests in projects, they reduced the number of projects authorized which allowed them to be more focused and effective. HP has a high level of project management maturity because of their disciplined project selection process.
7. Additional analysis of non-numeric projects is necessary in order to assess risks successfully. In order to adjust to the company’s needs and evaluate risks effectively, they have to involve qualitative methods of analysis. All of this helps maintain focus and initiate success for the business.

1. Left-handers die on average 3 years earlier than the right-hander.
2. It is estimated that 100 billion people died during the entire existence of people.
3. Every 40 seconds someone in the world commits suicide.
4. Coconuts kill more people in the world than sharks. About 150 people die each year from coconuts.
5. Every year, lightning kills 1,000 people.
6. The bad handwriting of a doctor kills more than 7,000 people per year.
7. The most common cause of death of people is a lack of oxygen.
8. The tradition of burial of the body of the deceased appeared more than 350,000 years ago. Neanderthals buried the dead as people.
9. About 21 people die every day in US due to lack of transplant organs.
10. About 12 people yearly are killed due to shark attack.
11. it takes about 15 years to decompose the dead human body.
12. 35 million of your cells die every minute.
13. After the death of a person, nails and hairs does not grow.
14. You have more chances of dying by slipping in the bathtub or hit by lightning than from terrorism.
15. scientists believe that a person who was buried alive will die 5.5 hours later.
16. Every 90 seconds one woman dies during pregnancy or child.
17. Every year 7 million people die due to air pollution.
18. 80 percent of people with the US die in the hospital.
19. the brain of a person after death continues to live for about 20 seconds.
20. many animals can pretend to be dead to be rescued from a predator.
21. During the railway construction in Egypt in the 19th century, construction companies discovered so many mummies that they used them as fuel.
22. in 1907 a doctor from Massachusetts conducted an experiment with weighing a man before and after death and reported that the body lost 21 grams after death.
23. within three days after death, the enzymes left in the body begin to decompose the body.
24. Every hour one person dies due to drivers who got into a drunk driving.
25. There is a syndrome called Cotard’s syndrome.
26. Every hour in India, one woman dies due to a dowry.
27. US President Abraham Lincoln, after his death, was reburied 17 times either because of the reconstruction of the tomb, or for safety reasons.
28. The crucifixion is still the official form of punishment in the Sudan.
29. Twenty thousand children die daily from hunger.
30. after death adults see themselves as children and children on the contrary as adults.
31. In Madagascar, people dig up the remains of their loved ones and dance with them in the street during a ritual ceremony called Famadihana.
32. Hanged men sometimes have a post-mortem erection.
33. Approximately 153,000 people will die on their birthdays.
34. The death rate from suicide in New York is much higher than the death rate at the hands of murderers.
35. Parsi, an ethno-confessional group of followers of Zoroastrianism of India, do not bury the dead bodies, but feed them to vultures.
36. There are 200 dead bodies on Mount Everest, which are now used as a guide on the way to summit.
37. Heart diseases is the leading cause of death worldwide.
38. About 25 million people died in Europe during Black Plague.
39. The most dangerous and destructive war in the history of mankind is the Second World War.
40. men on statistics die five times more often than women.
41. the Egyptians believed that the afterlife is almost identical to the real life.
42. Of all the animals, not counting man, only elephants have a kind of funeral ritual.
43. There are at least 200 euphemisms for the word “die.”
44. The human head lives for another 15-20 seconds after separating from body.
45. Since the completion of the construction in 1937, more than 600 people committed suicide by jumping off the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco.
46. The deadliest sports are football and basketball.
47. 80 percent of Soviet men born in 1923 died in the Second World War.
48. When a person dies, the sense of hearing is the last to be lost.
49. Jellyfish Turritopsis Dohrnii are officially the only immortal creatures on planet Earth.
50. In medieval Japan, it was believed that there was one hair somewhere on the tail of a cat that could restore the life of a dying person. For this reason, cats were brought into the room of a dying person and placed next to his or her bed.

x

Hi!
I'm Alfred!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out