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1. APPLE’S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO
Apple Inc. Is an United States of America corporation multinational worried within the diagram then propagation over client electronics merchandise yet software? The company’s nearly popular products are Macintosh, iPod yet iPhone. Search because Windows Vista (iTunes), iLife because iWork, Producer (Final Cut Studio), and iPad (Apple Group), then more than 250 stores on paradoxes among 9 international locations or on-line shops sold with the aid of hardware then software. Apple Computer was once initially named when it used to be made between 1976 by means of Steve Jobs, Ronald Wayne, Steve Wozniak, then in the beginning focused about hardware development, especially over non-public computers. This was now not the litigation among 2007 so that decided in accordance with swap in imitation of the development over client electronics merchandise up to expectation acquired a modern identity Apple Inc. Apple is some over the world’s biggest names within the ball yet certain on the world’s largest facts technological know-how companies. It ranks advance amongst the top three cell cellphone organizations among the world, yet of 2014, it was rated as much a valuable company among the world, estimated at respecting one hundred twenty Billion dollar.
2. Nature of the operations
Apple decided to implement the ten decisions issued by the management of Apple to confirm that all-natural processes in the company, and running on a good system and aspects of work also operates excellent system smoothly so that the processes are high quality and with the least errors. Apple has a team of senior managers where each of the managers is responsible for implementing the procedures required to process the decisions to manage the ten operations, as Apple has a very good performance in assessing the efficiency of operations management.
The ten decisions Apple has made are:
1. Design of merchandise and Enterprises.
2. Quality administration.
3. Process and limit outline.
4. Location system.
5. Layout outline and procedure.
6. Job outline and HR.
7. Supply chain administration.
8. Inventory administration.
9. Scheduling.
10. Maintenance.

Apple Inc.
Apple is of the demanded devices out there to the consumers. Despite on Apple’s evolution apple has concentrated on how to improve wages and in how to use their money on the right strategy. Apple has several varieties that cover from mobile phones to all electronic devices. In addition Apple has advanced and became one of the largest online retailers of video games, music and phone application. As demonstrated in the SWOT analysis one will see the strength Apple has in comparison to competitors and the weakness of Apple falling behind with the technology. For instance, the wireless cables that Samsung provides to its consumers. Another obstacle would be the cost and the uniqueness, Apple is falling behind and is in threat of its competitors in pricing and design aspects. Apple needs to address these issues and treat the matter as priority.

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What is PESTLE ANALYSIS?
The letters is an acronym and stands for Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal.
In reference to PESTEL analysis it is best describes as a tool marketers use to analyze and monitor the external environment of the organization.
In addition, PESTEL can also be defined as a tool that enables to forecast of the organization.
Moreover, PESTEL is an effective method that organizations use to assess the major macro factors that could play a role in influencing the operations of an organization in order to become more efficient and effective, and so enabling a competitive market.

Read more: PEST Analysis Definition | Investopedia https://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/pest-analysis.asp#ixzz5EqPU9U83
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Political factors
Economic factors
Social factors

1. Enhancing encouraged business approaches (opportunity).
1. Quick improvement of making countries (opportunity).
1. Rising usage of versatile access (opportunity).

2. Increase of Apple product prices due to finding alternatives for manufacturing Apple products elsewhere, other than China.

3. Political issue if States were to perceive China as a threat. Reason being it would affect countries like United States and Japan consumers. The prices would increase and Apple will have to look for alternative manufactures.

2. Cost of labor is rising in china which will affect the business profitability and will affect the economic factor.

3. Increase in exchange rates due to the increase of US dollar, which will result in the increase of the cost for Apple making it difficult for the business.
2. Ethically to consumers it is an American product and made in china could affect the appeal of the products to aware consumers.

3. The duplication of Apple product is everywhere in the market, which means that there is no differentiation with apple and competitor products.
3. PESTLE analysis of apple company:

Technological factors
Legal factors
Environmental factors
1. Cloud processing pattern (opportunity).
2. Technological coordination. 1. Expanding insurance controls.
2. Expanding media interchanges controls. 1. Business sensibility slants.

2. Item imperativeness efficiency inclines.

1. Smartphone manufactures are eliminating power cords, which apple has still not reached to doing that, there is a pressure in satisfying the demand of consumers and Apple is still behind in doing so (Mintel 2016).

2. Apple is concentrating on R;D by investing a lot of its capital. Such as, apple creates brand operating system which will increase its production cost. 3. Apple entering automobile business this will increase insurance, regularities and litigation so cost will change in Apple manufacturing.

4. Apple is at risk in piracy and litigation due to products covered by the laws in software’s and music for example in majority of Apple’s income.
3. Cost, regulation and policies could be increased due to energy usage and side effects from data centers.

4. Dependence on data centers and internet infrastructure will increase electricity cost so this will have an effect on Apple.

Table (1) PESTLE analysis ?
4. SWOT analysis of apple company:
Internal Factors External Factors

STRENGTHS
OPPORTUNITIES
1. Effective branding and appearance.
2. Making high profit
3. Development and innovation 1. Investing in Development and innovation
2. Devices being connected to the internet will elevate the Internet of things (IOT), giving Apple an opportunity to introduce a new OS system designed for IOT.
3. Innovation in health devices, that for instance could monitor sugar levels, calories, heart rate etc.

WEAKNESSES
THREATS

1. Limited distribution network.
2. High selling prices.
3. Sales limited mainly to high-end market.
1. Aggressive rivalry.
2. Limitation.
3. Countries where apple plants are found.

Table (2) SWOT analysis

• Market situation

Apple is at the present time including the “white hot focus” of joined individualized registering and redirection publicizes, and that is an extraordinary position to beat for any restriction. So the best game plan in such a case is to trap customers into another business focus – i.e. undertaking business focus i.e. g Apple, by nature and by business strategy, has never arranged itself in the wander space and that opens an open entryway for contenders like HP, Blackberry and others.

Quite a bit of this improvement can be followed back to the iPhone 6 and 6s, the landing of iPhone 8 and 8s, and the iPhone X full screen. With information of these new models in the market, iPhone bargains are generally advanced. Apple’s new cell phone bargain overall achieved only 19 for every penny in the final quarter of 2017. The organization posted another record of iPhone bargains in the main quarter of 2017 (in excess of 78 million enlistments) with in excess of 78 million units sold this quarter.
• Market segment

Apple division, concentrating on and arranging talks significantly of its advancing undertakings.
Division incorporates isolating masses into groups according to specific traits; however, when talking about dividing the population into their characteristics one can agree less in reference to John Dudovisky 2018, when he stated that Apple is a mono-segment type. As in you can appreciate the design and advanced technology of apple and chose to buy it no matter what the price is. So it does not suite accordingly to one’s social class. Overall, Apple targets consumers who are willing to pay for their advanced products.

• Market share

The sight and sound download advertise is an exceedingly uneven market with various rivals in it as reflected by an 80% piece of the overall industry of Apple iTunes in it. An indispensable reason for this market is “Outsider suppliers” e.g. iTouch, Napster, Zed and Monster Mob in addition to “versatile downloads arrange suppliers” are likewise critical in this specific situation.
• Key Points of the Internal Market Environment

The upgraded premium level of the music darlings for seeking after new advances can obviously be seen especially for “music download showcase”. The client’s fixation has been drawn by presenting new items e.g. Macintosh iPod. Notwithstanding it, innovation has a pattern to combine their functionalities in their gadgets connected to 1 thing/item just; illustrations are “Apple iPhone” and the recently propelled “Google G-telephone appear”.

• Key Points of the External Market Environment

The current wasteful aspects of enactment in regard to the copyright matters gladden the purchasers confused for authoritatively allowed download administrations. Mintel has seen an expanded propensity in customers to download the substance assuming free, from the enlisted online assets all the more readily.

• Two opportunities for Apple Inc.

Apple generates billions in revenue annually and is known to be a successful organization.
1. Apple watch
The device that was launched and was unique was watch. It was a boost in sales for apple, something extraordinary. In reference to Ashraf Eassa, 2018 apple sold 18 million watched in 2017. This proves that the opportunity in making money out of the development and innovation of these watches will be high and a long run for Apple.
As the production of watches keeps going the Apple business in watches will keep generating profits. By upgrading the device and generating the concept of simplicity of Apple design in creating other gadgets will also assist Apple in growing and satisfying its consumers.

2. services
The second largest part of Apple in terms of revenue under the financial system 2017 was not the iPad or Mac or various elements of departments as described in Apple’s latest 10-K registration, the services “include income in the contents of digital and services.
Service sector was not the only largest business in 2017 but it was also the fastest growing business. According to Ashraf Eassa 2018, Apple attributes the rapid growth of its business services in fiscal year 2017 to “App Store Increases and Sales Licensing.”

• Segmentation targeting and positioning of the brand

Apple is a willing to buy consumer product that has a high purchasing power for buyers. This will be the targets for a long time and finest brand and quality out there.

The technique used in Apple is a target in social class characteristics.
1. Music is one of the examples those who buy the devices Apple iPod and iTunes.
2. Another aim is engaging on apple iPhone, Tablets, MacBook and other such devices.
3. The other goal will be advancing technology in Apple television and watch.
Mac will resume to be knows as unique and one of the best products in the smartphone devices giving consumers a memorable experience.

• APPLE INC.’S TARGET MARKET
TEENAGERS:
Young people are respected some with respect to Apple Inc’s. Objective markets. Youngsters make utilization of iPods for much reason. Some about these reasons are in similarity with associate along companions, tune in as indicated by track or pace over Facebook, MSN, twitter and so on. There are additionally thick gaming applications so supplicate in similarity with them. IPod bear develops to be a significant mould with young people.
COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS:
School and college undergrads are also trotted through Apple Inc. These understudies make utilization of Apple Inc. stock such in particular iPod’s, MacBook’s, iPhone’s et cetera after in no time document notes. These notes are spared prepared in their gadgets. Likewise, this stock is mellow as makes expecting units to then from personnel bounty less demanding.
BUSINESS PEOPLE:
Specialists are completely interested by method for Apple items. All Apple units (iPhone’s, iPod’s, MacBook’s and so forth.) hold an endeavour increase so much is extremely helpful. These contraptions are old in impersonation of complete employment viably yet after talk together with clients easily. Furthermore, sending narratives is basic yet dealt with.

Youngsters:
According to youngsters apple devices are useful and efficient to their daily lifestyle. The reason for it is up to expectation devices certain as much iPods yet iPads are effortless in imitation of utilizes fit in accordance with theirs contact screen attribute which is helpful because of children. Parents do download study recreation apps regarding Apple devices after educate younger teens and kids.
ADULTS:
Adults are also some over Apple Inc.’s goal markets. iPhones are useful in accordance with adults because of their day-to-day wishes certain as like smartphone calls, chart directions, internet connection, documents or cameras. Carrying these tiny units makes adults lives a lot less complicated because of speaking daily.

The last two modern mobile phones from Apple
Apple in Development and innovation have combined LCD and OLED; to facilitate the introduction of wireless charging and 3D characteristics. For example iPhone 8 and 8plus are from LED design and OLED is designed in iPhone X. so the development will be combing both features. One fall back Iphone is facing is the fall in business selling the iPhone X due to the price. Therefore, creating a new device with better features and adding cost will make Apple experience a hard time selling the device causing a drop in sales.
• My recommendation in apple in general and what makes iPhone special:

I have had an entirely personal kinship together with Apple. When I was thriving up, as used to be the popular technological know-how situation according to continue to. It was cool, exciting then modern.

The powerful personal device in the world is designed for everyone. Thus, a blind person can take collective Selfie pictures. People who suffer from severe hearing impairment can focus on conversations more than adjust the audio aid settings. Those unable to move can send messages to friends.

Voiceover is an exceptionally propelled screen peruser that tells you what’s going on your iPhone screen on the off chance that you can’t see it. Touch the screen to hear what’s under your fingers and afterward utilize Gestures to control your gadget and associate with each implicit application.

Audio aids designed for iPhone are based on new Bluetooth technology designed by Apple. Provides high-quality sound, gives you the ability to manage audio levels from the iPhone, and helps you make clearer conversations in noisy places like restaurants.

• conclusion
Apple as a whole is advancing and concentrating a lot in development and innovation. However, they need to keep in mind that there are many competitors out there who are creating huge threats to Apples market. Apple needs to keep in mind that the cost will increase which will affect the productivity and sales. In reference to this report paper, the analysis proves that there are some strong opportunities and strengths that Apple can benefit from and take to their advantage. But they also need to keep in mind the weaknesses and threats other competitors are creating in against to their benefit. Apple targets consumers who are willing to pay and concentrates more on iPhones, so in order to advance and beat competitors they need to follow with their strategy of being unique and start thinking outside the box because consumers are no longer seeing the product as unique due to the high competitive market out there.

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1. Canada is the second largest country in the world (after Russia).
2. Hockey and Lacrosse are Canada’s national sports.
3. To obtain Canadian citizenship, it is necessary to live on its territory for 3 years in legal status.
4. Macaroni with cheese (macaroni and cheese) – the most popular type of product in Canada.
5. Canadians drink a lot of coffee.
6. In Canada, the most beautiful view is of Niagara Falls.
7. Canada have largest Sikh community outside of India.
8. Canada have largest French-speaking community outside of France and the largest community of Ukrainians outside of Ukraine.
9. With a Canadian passport, you can visit 164 countries around the world without a visa or by on arrival visa.
10. The most commercially successful Canadian film is a youth comedy about the first sexual experience, called “Porky’s”. With a budget of $ 4 million, the film grossed more than $ 105 million.
11. Basketball is the invention of Canadians.
12. 2/3 of total world’s Cesium is produced in one mine situated in province of Manitoba.
13. IMAX cinemas, electric wheelchairs and many more are the invention of Canada.
14. Canada became an independent country in 1982.
15. Baffin Island is the largest island in Canada.
16. Della falls is the highest waterfall in Canada.
17. English and French is the official language of Canada.
18. Approximately 80.5% of homes in Canada are connected to the Internet.
19. The area of Canada is more than 9.98 million square meters.
20. Canada has more internal lakes and rivers than any other country in the world.
21. 2.2% of Canada’s total area is occupied by 42 National Parks.
22. Canada is a major producer and consumer of cheese.
23. Canada is on the list of the world’s largest suppliers of gold, copper, zinc, nickel, aluminum, and natural gas.
24. More than three percent of Canada’s residents donate blood every year.
25. Canada ‘s highest peak is Mount Logan (5,959 m).
26. Canada has 15 World Heritage sites.
27. 42% of Canada’s population has a higher education.

28. In Canada there is only one desert, in which there are more than 100 rare plant species and more than 300 rare animals.
29. 2.4 million reindeers live in Canada.
30. The Canadian flag depicts a maple leaf with 11 peaks.
31. About half of the population sleep less than 8 hours a day, because they want to stay longer at work.
32. in Nunavut lives about 55% of population of polar bears.
33. More than 42% of Canadians are Catholics, 23% are Protestants.
34. More than 14 thousand windows in the two towers of the Royal Bank of Canada in Toronto are covered with a thin layer of gold of the highest standard. This is done to reduce the cost of heating the buildings.
35. They used 70 kilograms of gold for a total of about one million dollars.
36. The total population of Canada is around 36 million.
37. Ten percent of Canadian residents claim that they once saw a UFO.
38. Canada – one of the recognized world leaders in the supply of agricultural products (especially cereals).
39. In 1960, it was discovered that some part of Canada has less gravity than the other part of the world.
40. After World War II, many children protested in Canada, dissatisfied with the sharp rise in prices for sweets.
41. The Hawaiian Pizza is the invention of Canada.
42. State symbols of Canada are beaver.
43. People of Churchill don’t lock their car doors in case their neighbors need to make a quick escape from polar bears.
44. 90% of population of Canada resides near the Canada-US border.
45. Canada is famous for Ice Wine.
46. Northwest territories of Canada have license plate in shape of polar bear.
47. The Canada-US border is the longest international border in the world.
48. there are about 250accidents annually due to the fault of moose.
49. The first explorer to reach Canada was John Cabot, in 1497.

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50. The CN Tower, which rises 555 meters, is one of the tallest building in the world.
51. Canada had also contributed in medicine- insulin was isolated in University of Toronto, stem cell discovery and many more.
52. Canada has the largest coastline in the world.
53. Queen Elizabeth II is the Head of State in Canada.
54. The world’s smallest jail is in Canada (270 square feet).
55. Every year on Christmas about 1 million letters are received at the address of Santa Claus.
56. Santa Claus postal code is HOH OHO, North Pole, Canada.
57. In Canada there are 200 species of mammals.
58. Yonge Street of Canada is the longest street in the world.
59. In Canada about 280,000 new permanent residents were welcomed in 2010.
60. July 1st is celebrated as Canada Day.
61. Famous celebrities like Justin Bieber, Ryan Gosling, Jim Carrey, Ryan Reynolds are from Canada.
62. Ottawa is the capital of Canada.
63. There are six time zones in Canada.
64. About 22% of population of Canada is immigrants.
65. Canada has one of the lowest population densities.
66. There are ten provinces and three Territories.
67. The longest fresh water beach in the world- Wasaga beach is in Canada.
68. Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake are in the list of ‘Top 10 Largest Lakes in The World’.
69. The average life expectancy for males and female is 80 and 84 respectively.
70. Canada hosted Olympic Games for three times.

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1. OVERVIEW
World’s total energy needs are increasing day by day and energy becomes the most strategic value.2 Therefore, energy efficiency studies have become essential situation because of the increased energy costs all around the world. Reducing these cost through energy efficiency at universities has also given an advantage to both universities and students. The reduction of energy costs helps protect the college budgets and allow the universities to invest their students.

The place where computer and internet technologies are spreading in our lives day by day3. Thanks to developing smart products, energy consumption can be effectively monitored in universities and smart products provide universities a solution in case of high energy consumption. With a surveillance system that works every hour of a day, universities can take the necessary precautions about energy consumptions and energy costs.

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For this reason, both group members made researches and calculations to contribute the Bahçe?ehir University’s budget and increase the energy efficiency. As a result of researches and calculations, the best products that will increase energy efficiency for BAU are explained.

1.1. Description of the Project
The aim of this project is to reduce energy consumption and increase energy efficiency of existing buildings and facilities at BAU. There are two components to the project. The first component of the project is that investigate the existing buildings and facilities, their energy use, potential causes of energy losses. The second component of the project should a comprehensive assessment result of existing building and facility performances, and recommendations for better sustainability via decreased energy consumption, enhanced energy efficiencies, use of alternative energy sources.4

1.2. Literature Review
One of the most important features of eco-friendly buildings is energy use and efficiency. Energy efficiency for buildings is reduced systematically by heating and cooling demand. The most appropriate architectural design of the building, reducing the energy consumption burden, energy adopting the optimization of all-consuming systems separately and integrated with the architecture.”Integrated design understanding” is the method used in the design of contemporary high-performance buildings. With the balanced design of the components associated with the integrated design, cost benefits, as well as great returns on the economic benefits are provided.
1)Competition in economics is greatly bounded to the cost of energy which is increasing.
2)Turkey is not independent of energy sources. Therefore, imported energy sources are increasing year by year.
Under these circumstances, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources hold an important role to overcome fossil fuel dependency and fluctuating energy costs. On the other hand, energy efficiency shows as simplest, cheapest and fastest solution1T00815.pdf

1.3. Goals
The goals of this project are:
a)Reducing energy consumption
b)Increasing energy efficieny
c)Contribute to the BAU’s budget
d)Reducing emissions at BAU Buildings and facilities.
e)Ensure that BAU does not lose anything from the comfort while trying to increase energy efficiency

2. TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS
2.1. Technical Limitations
1)Budget and Equipment
-The equipment and devices were very expensive to buy and try.In addition,budget and equipment limited us on our calculations.
2)Time
-There are a lot of ways to increase energy efficiency and we have to decide best choices.Therefore,time was a limitation for us.
3)Data
-Data is the biggest limitation for us.We were unable to collect BAU’s energy data.Therefore,we used the energy data of other universities with the recommendation of our advisor.

2.2 Facilities and Components
We used software programs to calculation and see our progress.Besides, we needed energy efficient materials;
1)Lighting Bulbs(Led 20 W)
2)Heat pump
3)Wind Energy
4)Solar Energy
2.3. Technical Problems
1)Some data are missing while we are doing our calculations.We could solve this problem by looking at the data of other universities.
2)In some calculations,we could not calculate energy consumptions and CO2 emissions.Therefore,we searched software programs and internet tools(calculators)

3. WORK PLAN

3.1 Deliverables and Division of Tasks
a)Research
Due to our project position, we have researched similar projects on energy efficiency in the buildings. We observed various “energy efficiency in buldings” articles about this topic because of the seeing different thoughts on this subject.
b)Calculation
Firstly, we collected the data that contain energy consumption and energy efficiency. Then, according to these datas, we calculated the energy efficiency of the Bahçe?ehir University buildings. After, these calculations will demonstrate us which materials should be used in this project. Finally, we integrate whole studies that concludes this topic and we will be ready to presentation of this project.
c)Recommodations
According to our calculations,we offered equipment which is highly energy efficient and these equipment can contribute BAU’s budget.Briefly,we explained why we recommend these equipment.In addition to that,we gave information about these equipment.

4.PRODUCT SPECIFICATION
4.1. LED Lighting Bulbs

Energy efficient lighting installations including light-emitting diodes(LED) can not only help universities reduce their energy consumption and costs, but also the lighting arrangements can make a protected environment for students. They decrease energy costs and satisfy students. They minimize running costs and satisfy students and universities need for green energy and eco-friendly recommendations. They also provide optimal resistance in physical environments that can region intense stresses on lights fixtures and standards. Because of their higher energy efficiency over more traditional lighting fixtures systems, LED lighting lets in schools to store full-size amounts of operating and maintenance costs5. An LED bulb would possibly consume less half the energy as a common bulb while producing the identical or higher quality light.LED light bulbs are highly energy efficient and long-lasting and a LED bulb can decrease energy consumption by over 80% when compared to other light bulbs and can last up to 25% longer6.To specify a few advantages of LEDs;
• LEDs consume less energy than other traditional lights.
• LEDs are more durable and efficient than other traditional lights sources.They also have long a life span with 50,000-100,000 hours.
• LEDs provide extreme energy savings and they have no need for maintenance.
• LEDs emit light directly.

4.2. Heat Pumps

A heat pump is an electrically powered system based on the principle of transferring heat energy from one place to another. When the necessary conditions are met, high amounts of energy can be used at low cost. It is the environment in which the source of heat energy is received by the heat pump. The sources are air, ground, and water. Air source heat pumps are most commonly used heat pumps in Turkey. Air-source heat pumps can also take the form of air to water or air to air. Heating systems often use air-to-water heat pumps. The air source heat pump operates at variable coefficient of performance(COP) values due to the fact that the source is not stable. In other words, the electricity consumed by changing the air temperature (source) is decreasing or increasing.
4.2.1.Working Principle
A heat pump is a device that transfers heat energy from one source to another source. The sources are air, ground, and water. An air conditioner’s working principle is similar to heat pump’s working principle. It “extracts” heat from indoors and pumps it to the outside. The indoor side, you have cool air blowing out of the vent, after passing through a heat exchanger. On the outdoor side, you have warm air blowing out of another heat exchanger. The heat exchanger on the indoor side is called an evaporator and the heat exchanger on the outdoor side is called a condenser.

4.2.2. Advantages
a) Heat pumps are cheaper to operate.
b) Heat pumps require less maintenance than the combustion heating systems.
c)Heat pumps are safe and healthy.
d) Heat pumps do not out any harmful gas such as CO2
e)Heat pumps have a long life-span
f)Heat pump systems are sustainable systems.
g)They provide cooling during summers.

4.3. Wind Energy
Wind is a form of solar energy. Winds are caused by the unbalanced heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the irregularities of the earth’s surface, and rotation of the earth. Wind flow patterns are modified by the earth’s terrain, bodies of water, and vegetative cover. This wind flow, or motion energy, when “harvested” by modern wind turbines, can be used to generate electricity. 7
The terms “wind energy” or “wind power” define the process by which the wind is used to generate mechanical power to convert electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power. This mechanical power is converted to electricity. After that this power is distributed to homes, businesses, schools, and the like. 7

Modern wind turbines work on aerodynamic lift principle. The wind does not “push” the turbine blades, but instead, when the wind flows across and past a turbine blade, the difference in the pressure on either side of the blade produces a lifting force, causing the rotor to rotate and cut across the wind. In theory, the max. power that can be extracted by a wind turbine is 59.6% of the power in the wind (Betz’s Limit). Most wind turbines can extract about 40% or less(Capacity Factor). 7

4.3.1. Background of Wind Energy in Turkey

Turkey has a very advantageous position at wind energy because it has a very serious potential in terms of wind energy. The estimated potential is about 115,280 MW. The wind power plants, which were first built in 1998, were 8.7 MW in total installed capacity. By 2005, this table was very stable and almost no investment was made in this area because it did not see enough interest. However, in 2005, the legislation passed the general assembly of the parliament, which introduced renewable energy sources in electricity generation. Between 2005 and 2009 an increase of about 500 MW has been observed. In 2010, the YEK law, which will open these investments further and direct investors to this area, has entered into effect. 8
The total installed power of 172 Wind Power Plants is 5,789,39 MW. In 2016, 15.369.548.000 kilowatt-hours of electricity production was made with Wind Power Plants.9
Over the past few years, investments have accelerated and total wind capacity exceeded 5,000 MW as of 2017. The total installed capacity of Turkey is now 78,530 MW and the share of the wind is around 7.54%. By 2023, the target is to reach 20,000 MW in wind power. 10
Wind energy has many advantages for Turkey. First of all, the carbon emission of the wind, which is a clean and renewable energy source, has no disadvantages such as environmental pollution. The increase of wind power in our country means the decrease of energy dependency at the same time the development of this sector will create employment area. 10

4.3.2. Advantages
a) Wind power is cost-effective. Land-based utility-scale wind is one of the lowest-priced energy sources available nowadays, costing between two and six cents per kilowatt-hour, depending on the wind resource and the particular project’s financing.
b) It’s a clean source. Wind energy doesn’t pollute the air like power plants that rely on combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, which emit particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide.
c) It’s sustainable energy.

4.4. Solar Energy
Solar energy is provided the energy from the sun. This energy is in the form of solar radiation, which makes the production of solar electricity feasible. 11
Electricity can be produced directly from photovoltaic, PV, cells. These cells are made from materials which exhibit the “photovoltaic effect” when sunshine hits the PV cell, the photons of light excite the electrons in the cell and cause them to flow, generating electricity. 11
Solar energy produces electricity when it is in demand – during the day particularly hot days when air-conditioners drive up electricity demand. 11
Solar energy does not generate emissions in using position. One megawatt hour of solar electricity offsets about 0.75 to 1 tonne of CO2. 11
PV panels are being used increasingly, both in the city and in remote locations, to produce electricity for houses, schools, and communities, and to supply power for equipment such as telecommunication and water pumps. 11

4.4.1. Background of Solar Energy in Turkey
According to the Solar Energy Map (SEM) of Turkey prepared by the Renewable Energy General Directorate, it has been detected that the total annual insolation time is 2.737 hours (a total of 7,5 hours per day), and the total solar energy derived per year is 1.527 kWh/m2 per year (total 4,2 kWh/m2 per day). 12
The total installed solar collector area in Turkey as of 2012 was calculated as being close to 18.640.000 m2. The annual production of planary solar collectors was calculated as 1.164.000 m2 and vacuum-tube collectors were 57.600 m2. 50% of the planary collectors and all of the vacuum-tube collectors which are produced are known to be used within the country. 12
In 2015, close to 811.000 TEP Tonnes Equivalent to Petrol) heat energy was produced using solar collectors. The use of the heat energy produced in 2015 was calculated as 528.000 TEP in homes, and 283.000 TEP for industrial purposes. 12
As of the end of 2016, it has been given the pre-license 34 solar power plant whose installed capacity is 402 MW and the license 2 solar power plant whose installed capacity is 12,9MW. Also, at the end of 2016 with the establishment of unlicensed power generation plants the number of solar power plants is 1043 and the total installed power of these plants is 819,6 MW. Total installed power of solar energy-based power generation plants is 832,5 MW. 12

4.4.2. Advantages
a) Solar energy is not only sustainable, but also renewable energy and this means that solar energy will never be runned out. Solar energy is about as natural a source of power as it is possible to generate electricity.
b) The creation of solar energy requires little maintenance. Once the solar panels have been installed and are working at maximum efficiency there is only a small amount of maintenance required each year to provide they are in working order.
c) PV panels are a silent producer of energy. There is absolutely no noise made from photovoltaic panels as they convert sunlight into usable electricity.
d) There are continual advancements in solar panel technology which are increasing the efficiency and lowering the cost of production, thus making it even more cost effective.
e) Solar power plants do not produce emissions during the operation.

5.METHODOLOGY
Energy consumption of a building is associated with physical houses concerning the
building certain so characteristics concerning building envelope, HVAC regulation or equipment installed in the buildings, sources regarding inward warmness gain then losses, outdoor or indoor climatic conditions or close importantly process sketch about the HVAC13.
This project aims to evaluate the energy performance of BAU buildings with the use of lighting bulbs, heat pump, wind energy plant and solar energy plant to provide energy conservation. For this purpose, annual energy consumptions and costs, efficiencies, CO2 emissions and payback periods are calculated.As a result of these calculations, the efficient products which have the minimum energy costs are suggested for BAU.
For the heat isolation calculations, TS 825 which is the obligatory procedure in Turkey was used.Internet tools(calculators) were used energy calculations13.

5.1. TS 825 Standard

TS 825 “Thermal Insulation Requirements for Buildings” is an official mandatory standard of Turkey. This software program prepared by IZODER;”TS 825″ and based on Turkey’s meteorological data in the last 20 years.TS 825 has been operating since 2000 which is changed in 2008, reducing the total heat transfer coefficient. TS 825’s main purpose is to limit building’s energy demands according to area to volume(A/V) ratio.13
An adequate level of heat insulation in a building, the heating period, the internal environment in a specific internal temperature required to provide a portion of the heat energy from internal resources and is provided by the solar energy. The remaining amount by the heating system must be running the internal environment. TS 825 as defined in the account
using the method of the heating system requires that the internal environment can be determined by the amount of heat energy required. Annual heating energy is defined as the need for this amount of the total losses of the solar energy gains and calculated by subtracting the internal gains. The account defined in the method, annual heating energy needs
covering the period monthly heating energy is located in the collection of needs.14

5.1.1.Calculation of Annual Heating Energy Demand

-Heat demand is calculated monthly in terms of specific heat loss,efficiency factor,internal and solar gains from Figure 1 and Figure 2

-H is the building’s specific heat loss, Hi is the ventilation’s specific heat loss and Hh is the conductive specific heat loss.

RETScreen software program is the best Clean Energy Managament Software for energy efficiency, renewable energy, feasibility analysis and on going project analysis.15

5.2.1. Main Activities

• Building a large and evolving global database of project input parameters (including data on benchmarks, facilities, prototypes, costs, products, and finances)
• Creating an expert system decision-engine within the software that will mine this database relative to the user’s project location
• Gathering publically available data for multiple areas, based on the existing climate data in RETScreen
• Link to open data sources and energy resource maps such as NASA’s satellite weather data, streaming dynamic near real-time data into the software
• Using the above to support the creation of a Virtual Energy Analyser, a Smart Project Identifier, Financial Risk Assessor and project lifecycle Performance Tracker
• Creating training material
• Conducting beta testing/pilot project in a REEEP priority country
Internet tools were used to find out how much the products consume energy. These internet tools can also be called “internet calculators”. After the desired data are entered,the results were obtained by the internet calculators. Additionally, annual energy costs, annual energy savings and payback periods can be calculated via internet tools.
In this project measurements are divided into three parts for every product; energy consumption, energy efficiency, CO2 emission and payback period data.

5.4.1 Energy Consumption Data
Energy consumption of BAU Buildings are measured by internet tools and software programs. Table-2 shows how much the BAU Buildings’ equipment consume energy.
.4.2. Calculation of Annual Energy Savings and Energy Costs

Based on the energy consumption data, annual energy savings, and annual energy costs of products were calculated.

• 1Kwh = 0.4641 TL
• Annual Energy Saving = BAU’s Annual Energy Consumption – New Product’s Energy Consumption
• Annual Energy Costs = Annual Energy Consumption x 0.4641 TL

5.4.3 Calculation Of Energy Efficiency, CO2 Emissions and Simple Payback Period

In order to protect the livability of the world, it is necessary to reduce the carbon emissions produced by mankind. However, it is not so easy to say that it is possible to achieve this result. Because for a such a result both countries and the business world need to implement a long-term disciplined approach that is coordinated with each other. There are four basics areas which need serious initiatives to reduce carbon emissions

• Increasing Energy Efficiency
• Increasing the efficiency of land use and prevent to the reduction of forests.
• Prioritizing energy production technologies to reduce carbon emissions
• The use of energy that does not generate carbon emissions in transportation.

• Energy Efficiency = (Useful Energy Output / Energy Input) x 100
• Simple Payback Period = Installation cost / Annual Savings
• 1 Kwh = 0,44 kg CO2

6.RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the findings and calculations in this project, the following recommendations are made
6.1. LIGHTING
1. As you can see in the calculations section,we have shown that LED light bulbs consume less energy than traditional light bulbs and we have mentioned LED’s advantages. Therefore, we strongly recommend LED lighting bulbs to improve energy efficiency and budget of BAU.
2. Daylight should be used as much as possible.
3.BAU should use smart technologies to control energy data.Thanks to smart technologies, lights can be turned on and off automatically when no classes are used by anyone or when classes are used.
4. Energy waste is prevented by the smart technologies.

6.2. HEAT PUMPS
1. Heat pumps are sustainable energy systems. They can use heat, water and ground. However, we recommend BAU to use Air-source heat pumps because of Istanbul’s climatic conditions.
2. Air is the easiest energy source to find. Air source heat pumps use outside air or waste air as an energy source for heating, cooling or hot water.
3. Heat pumps are very useful equipment because they can do heating and cooling. They may be sufficient for the heating and cooling needs by themselves.
4. Heat pumps can be used in difficult climatic conditions by increasing COP values thanks to developing the technology.

6.3. WIND ENERGY
Another recommendation to increase energy efficiency in existing buildings and facilities of Bahçe?ehir University is wind energy.
The wind energy power plant project will make a significant contribution to the existing energy consumption in terms of compensating or reducing the energy usage in Bahçe?ehir University buildings and facilities. In addition, this project will have a extraordinary observation field for university students in practice.

The universities and their installed powers, which may be good examples in this topic, are as follows:
1. Bo?aziçi University Saritepe Campus – 0,9 MW (Istanbul)
2. Gediz University – 0,1 MW (Izmir)
3. Katip Celebi University – 0,020 MW (Izmir)

Thanks to RETScreen Expert software, a suitable wind energy power plant study for Bahçe?ehir University are as follows:
6.4. SOLAR ENERGY
Another recommendation to increase energy efficiency in existing buildings and facilities of Bahçe?ehir University is solar energy.
The solar power plant project will make a significant contribution to the existing energy consumption in terms of compensating or reducing the energy usage in Bahçe?ehir University buildings and facilities. In addition, this project will have a extraordinary observation field for university students in practice.

The universities and their installed powers, which may be good examples in this topic, are as follows:
1. Yeditepe University – 1,00 MW (Istanbul)
2. Karamanoglu Mehmet Bey University – 0,46 MW (Karaman)
3. Ozyegin University – 0,35 MW (Istanbul)
4. Van Yuzuncu Yil University – 0,35 MW (Van)
5. Dicle University – 0,24 MW (Diyarbakir)
6. Katip Celebi University – 0,20 MW (Izmir)
7. Amasya University – 0,20 MW (Amasya)
8. Hasan Kalyoncu University – 0,17 MW (Gaziantep)
9. Mugla University – 0,12 MW (Mugla)
10. Hacettepe University – 0,050 MW (Ankara)

Thanks to RETScreen Expert software, a suitable solar power plant study for Bahçe?ehir University are as follows:
6.5. Thermal Insulation

Thermal insulation is preferred in order to live in a more comfortable environment by reducing the energy we use to warm up in winter and cool down in summer. For this reason, heat insulation gives the desired result when it is applied to walls, roof, flooring, glass, joinery and installations that look out to buildings or to unheated parts like garage, warehouse.In other words, thermal insulations are used in order to extend the life of the building by protecting the building from internal and external factors and to reduce environmental pollution.Therman insulation helps to;

• Thermal insulation is one of the most efficient ways to save energy since insulation keeps buildings in winter and cool in the summer.
• Thermal insulation helps to save money on your energy bills
• Thermal insulations reduce your energy use and decrease CO2 emissions
• Reliance on heating and cooling systems are reduced by thermal insulations
• Thermal insulations improve your comfort at home.

World’s total energy needs are increasing day by day and energy becomes the most strategic value.Therefore, it was very crucial point to reach our goals. As a result of our researches and calculations in the direction of our aims, Less fossil fuel burnout thanks to energy saving, undesirable emissions and the global warming effects caused by carbon emissions will be reduced.Additionally, energy savings will contribute BAU’s budget which means more invesment opportunities for students.
We can not include much more equipment in our project,which will increase the energy efficiency of our university.Therefore,it might be a part of our project that we have failed.
The energy performance of the university can be better with a analysis of energy audit by professionals or a seminar to be given to the students can reduce energy consumption

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1. HUMAN IMPACTS

? The immediate effect of disaster caused the death of two workers followed with several deaths within few hours of the explosion. The death rate was continuously increased with several radiation sicknesses.
? Released radioactive materials were iodine-131, cesium-134 and cesium 137. This all were released from the faulty nuclear reactor. According to UNSCEAR, among these radioactive materials, iodine-131 has less duration of action due to its short half life, nearly 8 days. But this is easy to reach in thyroid gland via air. Cesium molecules have longer duration of action as they are having prolonged half life. The scientists were worried about their long term effects.
? The residents of Pripyat, were released from that area almost after 36 hours of incidence. Within this period, different health effects were noticed such as headaches, nausea, vomiting and miscellaneous radiation health effects. Surrounding 30km area almost vacant, people left their personal everything behind.
? According to U.S. NRC, within 3 months of nuclear accident, 31 people died due to radiation effect
? The number is exceeding 6,000 of thyroid cancer cases which were relating the effect of radiation exposure. The effect of radiation exposure is continuous, though it is mild and considered 0.1 REM per year. In this contaminated area almost five million residents are living and get affected with solid tumor, leukemia. The exact relation to the radiation induced health effect and the number of sufferers, is not yet clear.
? Some fear effects still present in the surrounding areas, Many doctors from Eastern Europe and Soviet Union still suggested for abortion to pregnant women, as radiation poisoning causes birth defects or other disorder to fetus.

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2. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

? The woodland present nearby area of the Chernobyl, is affected by radiation exposure and killed several plants which had surrounded the woodland area after a short interval of the accident. The area is now known as ‘Red Forest’, as the colour of the trees turned to ginger color due to burning. The wild lives stayed in the forest were no more exist.
? The large area, including Pripyat and Chernobyl is considered as “zone of alienation” and limit the humans living. The nuclear plant management team is working hard to stop the leakage of the radioactive materials from the reactor, and able to completely shut down its last reactor in December 2000.
? Some of the former residents were coming back to stay in their houses and government officials and researchers are allowed to inspect the sites. In 2011, Ukarine opened the area for visitors to see the disastrous effect of the radiation.
? This allowance does not provide any indication that the area is totally safe for living. The long effect of the radiation is continuing.

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