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1.0. Nature and scope of HRM
In a simple sense, human resources management means employing people, developing their resources, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirements with a view to contributing to the goals of the organization, individual and the society
People in any organization manifest themselves, not only through individual sections but also through group interactions. When individuals come to their workplace, they come with not only technical skills, knowledge etc. but also with their personal feelings, motives, attitude, talent-job fit, values etc. Therefore, employee management in an organization does mean management of not only technical skills but also other factors of the human resources: The scope of human resources management in the modern days is vast. In fact, the scope of HRM was limited to employment and maintenance of and payment of wage and salary. The scope gradually enlarged to providing welfare facilities, motivation, performance appraisal, human resources management, maintenance of human relations, strategic human resources and the like. The scope has been continuously enlarging. The scope of Human Resources Management includes: o Objectives of HRM o Organization of HRM o Strategic HRM o Employment o Development o Wage and salary administration/compensation o Maintenance o Motivation o Industrial relations o Participative management and o Recent developments in HRM.
1.1. The function of HRM in contributing to organizational performance:
The functions of HRM can be broadly classified into two categories, a. Managerial functions and b. Operative functions. Managerial Functions Managerial functions of personnel management involve;
o Planning o Organizing o Directing o Controlling
Operative Functions The operative functions of human resources management are related to specific activities of personnel management, such as; A. Employment Employment is concerned with securing and employing the people possessing the required kind and level of human resources necessary to achieve the organizational objectives It covers functions such as o Job analysis o Human resources planning o Recruitment, o Selection, o Placement o Induction and o Internal mobility.
B. Human Resources Development: It is the process of improving, molding and changing the skills, knowledge, creative ability, aptitude, attitude, values, commitment etc., based on present and future job and organizational requirements. This function includes: o Performance Appraisal o Training o Management Development o Career Planning and Development o Internal Mobility
o Transfer o Promotion o Demotion o Retention and Retrenchment Management o Change and Organization Development
C. Compensation It is the process of providing adequate, equitable and fair remuneration to the employees. It includes: o Job evaluation o Wage and salary administration o Incentives o Bonus o Fringe benefits o Social security measures etc.
D. Human Relations It is the process of interaction among human beings. Human relations is an area of management in integrating people into work situations in a way that motivates them to work together productively, cooperatively.
E. Industrial Relations: The terms ‘industrial relations’ refer to the study of relations among employees, employers, government and trade unions.
F. Recent Trends in HRM: Human Resources Management has been advancing at a fast rate. The recent trends in HRM include: o Quality of work life o Total quality in human resources o HR accounting, audit and research and o Recent techniques of HRM
1.2. Distinguish between human resource management and personnel management: Human resource is considered as the backbone of any organization.
Personnel Management is different from Human Resources Management. Personnel means persons employed. Hence, personnel management views the man as the economic man who works for money or salary. Human resources management treats the people as human beings having economic, social and psychological needs. Thus, HRM is broader in scope compared to personnel management. We can distinguish between human resource management and personnel management as follows:
Personnel management is a traditional approach to managing people in the organization. Human resource management is a modern approach to managing peoples and their strengths in the organization.
Personnel management focuses on personnel administration, employee welfare, and labor relation. Human resource management focuses on acquisition, development, motivation, and maintenance of human resources in the organization.
Personnel management assumes people as an input for achieving the desired output. Human resource management assumes people as an important and valuable resource for achieving the desired output.
Under personnel management, personnel function is undertaken for employee’s satisfaction on the other hand under human resource management, administrative function is undertaken for goal achievement.
Under personnel management, job design is done on the basis of the division of labor but under human resource management, job design function is done on the basis of group work/teamwork.
In personnel management, employees are provided with less training and development opportunities but in HRM employees are provided with more training and development opportunities.
In personnel management, decisions are made by the top management as per the rules and regulation of the organization. In human resource
management, decisions are made collectively after considering employee’s participation, authority, decentralization, competitive environment etc.
Personnel management focuses on increased production and satisfied employees, on the other hand, human resource management focuses on effectiveness, culture, productivity and employee’s participation.
Personnel management is concerned with the personnel manager but human resource management is concerned with all level of managers from top to bottom.
Personnel management is a routine function but Human resource management is a strategic function
1.3. Evaluate the roles and responsibilities of line managers in human resource management: The roles and responsibilities of line managers in any organization are very important to achieve the ultimate goals of any organization. Since the key functions are supervised by the line managers so line managers should be very sincere, dutiful, knowledgeable and honest. Based on the culture of the line managers in human resource management, there is a strong relationship between the line managers and subordinates. This relationship helps the employees take line managers as their own organization. Some important roles of a line manager are;
Planning and Organizing: The line manager is responsible for planning the aims, objectives, and priorities of their work area in an organization according to the level of responsibility and the grade of the people within the organization.
Managing Resources: A line manager is responsible for deploying the resources within their control (people’s time; money; etc) to achieve organization plans.
The Conscience Role:
The conscience role is that of a humanitarian who reminds the management of its morals and obligations to its employees.
The counselor: Employees who are dissatisfied with the present job approach the HR manager for counseling. In addition, employees facing various problems like marital, health, children education/marriage, mental, physical and career also approach the HR managers. The HR Manager counsels and consults the employees and offers suggestions to solve/overcome the problems.
The Mediator: As a mediator, the HR manager plays the role of a peace-maker. He settles the disputes between employees and the management. He acts as a liaison and communication link between both of them.
The Spokesman: He is a frequent spokesman for or representative of the company. The Problem-solver: He acts as a problem solver with respect to the issues that involve human resources management and overall long-range organizational planning.
The Change Agent: He acts as a change agent and introduces changes in various existing programs.
2.0. The pivotal area of HRM in a range of organizational contexts:
Human resource management plays the most crucial role in the management of an organization. HRM plays a crucial role in the conversion process of inputs into outputs. Product design, quality maintenance, rendering services etc., depend upon the efficiency of human resources. The human resource also plays a significant role in managing finances and managing information systems.
The main objectives of HRM may be as follows:
o To create and utilize an able and motivated workforce to accomplish the basic organizational goals.
o To establish and maintain sound organizational structure and desirable working relationships among
o All the members of the organization.
o To secure the integration of individual and groups within the organization by coordination of the individual and group:
o To create facilities and opportunities for individual or group development so as to match it with the growth of the organization.
o To attain an effective utilization of human resources in the achievement of organizational goals.
o To identify and satisfy individual and group needs by providing adequate and equitable wages, incentives, employee benefits and social security and measures for challenging work, prestige, recognition, security, status etc.
2.1. Evaluate the importance of HR planning in an organization:
Human resource planning can be defined in various ways. For example, it has been explained thus: ”estimating the future supply of and demand for human capital and then figuring out how to close the gaps. Such planning allows companies to think through their workforce alternatives to the high fixed costs of full-time employees”. More broadly, it is a continuing process of analyzing an organization’s human resources needs under changing conditions to ensure that the right numbers of people with the right skills, and at the right costs are available at the right time for the organization. More narrowly, it may simply be described as the complex science (or art) of matching labor demand with labor supply. These definitions suggest that staffing plans should derive from, and be consistent with, both short-term and long-term goals and objectives of the organization, and should, in turn,
inform human resource management functions, such as job design, recruitment and selection, human resource development and performance management. Ideally, human resource planning focuses on both the strategic (and long-term) and operational (short-term) perspectives. The long-term covers up to five years and short-term less than one year, depending on the nature of the organization.
The complexity of human resource planning techniques will vary with organizational size and the dynamic nature of the organization or its industrial environment, and the perception and status of the human resource function.
2.2. The stages involved in planning HR requirements:
The most important stages those are involved in HR planning can be described as flowing:
Determined goals of the organization:
This is the first step of HRP because HR planning must be derived from organizational goals or objective.
Assessment of Present Human Resources:
This step begins with developing a profile of current employees in an organization.
The main motive of this stage generates an effective and details about the current number of employees, their capacity, performance, and potentiality etc.
Forecasting Human Resource (demand and supply):
The human resources required at different positions according to their job profile are to be estimated from internal and external sources to fulfill those requirements. There should be a proper matching of a job description and job specification of one particular work, and the profile of the person should be suitable for it.
Implementing the Action Plan:
In these steps, the HR plan should be converted into action. Implementation of HR plan means the recruitment, selection, placement, performance appraisal, career development, promotion, transfer, layoff, retirement, training and development, motivation and compensation etc
Evaluation, Control, and Feedback:
In this stage, we need to measure progress in order to control and evaluate to identify if the changes in the HR plans are made necessary because of changed conditions or because some of the original planning assumptions have gone wrong.
2.3. The effectiveness of the recruitment and selection techniques.
An organization´s most important asset is their workforce, to developing a strong and capable workforce requires a proper recruitment and selection process/technique that identifies strong candidates both inside and outside the organization.
Recruitment:
It is rather the first stage towards appointment. Recruitment is the process of:
o Identifying the prospective employees, o Stimulating them, and o Encouraging them to apply for a particular job or jobs in an Organization.
The recruitment process involves: o Advertising among the “sources of suitable persons”, o Giving information about the organization for the organization and the job vacancies, o Providing information regarding the selection process, and o Mentioning the address at which applications are to be sent (and the medium of sending) o And the last date by which applications should be received by the organization.
The basic purpose of ‘recruitment’ is to have applications from sufficient numbers of qualified persons who are inclined to join the organization.
Selection: This is the stage of examining the applications to identify suitable candidates and to make the selection of best-suited persons for the organization. It generally involves following stages: o Examining all applications to identify candidates meeting all the conditions mentioned in the o job advertisement; o Rejecting the applications of candidates not meeting the requirements; o Based on the number of vacancies for job, deciding the candidates who should be called/invited for Interviews; o Arranging for the interviews in terms of (i) deciding place and time of interviews, (ii) deciding names of the Specialists who may interview the candidates, (iii) seek approval from the specialists to know who will be actually coming for interviewing the candidates, (iv) arrange for the room where the invited candidates may be seated to wait for their turn for the Interview. 3.1. The effectiveness of reward management strategies:
A proper rewards approach drives desired behaviors in an organization´s workforce that ensure the organization’s success. To develop an effective total rewards strategy for an organization the following process is essential:
Analyze the business environment and understand the external factors: The business environment should be scanned for economic and legislative factors, among others, that could influence the reward positioning of the organization. The specific analysis that should be performed includes the following: o A thorough understanding of the organization. o Identifying key stakeholders involved in the organization and conducting a needs analysis to understand their priorities, preferences, and needs.
o Understanding the quantitative and qualitative skill requirements of the organization to fulfill its business objectives and the demand and supply factors that play a role in attracting and retaining these skills.
Draft a reward strategy document: The human resource function should develop and maintain the reward policies and ensure that they comply with legislation, support the organization’s strategy and culture and align with the reward philosophy. The strategy itself must provide the organization with directives and should include the following elements:
o Reward strategy objectives: Reward objectives normally relate to the attraction, retention, motivation, and engagement of employees.
o The reward philosophy: What are the reward principles that should underpin the reward framework and that will guide the development of the various reward practices and reward decisions? o The optimal mix of total reward elements: To be optimal, the mix of reward elements is contained in the rewards framework, constructed in terms of the reward model that takes into account the organization’s objectives and is aligned with them.
Elements of the total rewards model must be considered: (a) Remuneration Remuneration consists of both fixed and variable remuneration to promote attracting and retaining talent without promoting undesirable remuneration gaps.
(b) Benefits: Benefits should be cost effective and cost efficient and to enhance the standard of living of the recipient. (c) Work-life balance The organization should draft a specific statement setting out its position with regard to work-life balance and the working environment.
(d) Performance and recognition: Performance and recognition programs should be both monetary and non-monetary and should be cost-effective. The organization should draft a detailed statement of how it intends to provide recognition for performance, recognizing the complexity and sensitivity of this issue.
(e) Development and career development: Development and career opportunities should develop talent and skills and grow the leadership potential of future leaders.
3.2. Methods organizations use to monitor employee performance.
The methods on the basis the performance is measured and reported include the following aspects: o Punctuality in job performance o Attendance and Leaves o Being ‘Late on the Job’ (if any) and ‘waiting time’ involved o Quantity of work output o Quality of the work output o Completeness of work output o Timeliness of the results o Team-spirit (including cooperativeness, commitment to team goals, adhering to team norms, and work relations with team members etc); o Result achieved including achievement of targets set for his/her Job; o Financial aspects of his performance on the job (like efficiency in use of resources, avoiding wastages, saving the costs, enhancing profitability of the work-process of which he/she is a part of) o Pass-rates of being able to do the tasks on ‘first-time-right basis’; and o Contribution towards goals and objectives of the team/group and of the organization, etc
3.3. The process of job evaluation and other factor determining pay.
A proper job-analysis is essential for fixing the level of remuneration. The following types of job-related information constitute the “job evaluation determining pay; o Work activities o Interface with other jobs o Procedure to be followed in the job o Physical movements and allied demands of the job o Machines and equipment required to be operated o Educational qualification level essential for the job o Previous training & experience necessary for the job o Special skills required o Physical working conditions involved o Work schedule and o Importance of the job in the context of organizational business strategies.
4.0 Assess contemporary issues affecting strategic HRM
Human resources managers face a myriad challenge in today’s workforce. There are issues concerning the diverse workforce, legislation affecting the workplace and technology matters that rise to the top of the list of challenges. Human resources managers who encounter these challenges use their leadership skills and expertise to avert issues that might arise from these challenges HR professional can’t ignore these challenges rather they ought to be the line to design and execute innovative mechanisms of developing skills and competencies of human resources to prepare them to accept the emerging challenges.
4.1. Contemporary issues affecting strategic HRM Contemporary business environment brings new challenges affecting many aspects of management including one of its crucial facets of HRM. Most frequently mentioned challenges of modern HRM are globalization, economic and legal environment, and workforce diversity resulting from both of the globalization and demographic change, technological development, changes in educational background of employees and in their expectations regarding working
conditions. These factors, directly and indirectly, determine human resource management strategies and the possibility of their implementation.
4.2. Analyze contemporary issues affecting strategic HRM Workforce diversity: Now-a-day the lifestyles and the requirements are changing day by day. Employees want a balance between work life and family life. Some want to earn more money by working hard even by overtime, on the other hand, some employees are less willing to work for a long period of time, or on overtime or on weekend days.
The quality of work Life: Now employees and managers are more concerned about the quality of work life where they are performing every day.
Management system: A proper management system is the framework of processes and procedures used to ensure an organization´s required achievement and its objectives. An improper management system decreases customer satisfaction as services and productions and fails to deliver what they promise.
Organizational culture: It is an invisible but powerful force; it refers behavior of humans within an organization and the meaning that people attach to those behaviors. It is the collection of values, beliefs, assumptions, myths, norms, goals, mission, vision etc.
Leadership development: HR professionals are faced with being expected to provide the essential structures, processes, tools, and points of view to make the best selection and develop the future leaders of the organization.
Managing change: Change management represents a particular challenge for HRM.
New trends and changes have occurred in telecommunicating, outsourcing HRM practices, family medical leave, child care, spouse relocation assistance, pay for skills, benefit cost-sharing, union-management negotiations, testing, and many other HRM areas of interest.
Decentralized work-sites: Organizations use decentralized work sites because telecommunicating arrangements enable organizations to find and use qualified employees without having to relocate business facilities.
Environmental challenges: Environment is the sum total of conditions that surround us at a given point in time and space. It is comprised of the interacting systems of physical, biological and cultural elements which are interlinked both individually and collectively.
Social issues: In some companies, employees are represented by a labor union. Managing human resources in a union-management requires knowledge of specific laws, contract administration, and the collective bargaining process.
Innovations in technology: Technological innovations that can either benefit or hurt the business. Some technological innovations can increase the productivity and profit margins, if the organization cannot cope with the changes, then the performance will be decreased.
Economic and politics: The economic and political condition, both at home and abroad have a major impact on human resource management.
Different laws of the country: Every government has its own designed rules and regulation such as labor laws, women’s rights, rights of the disable persons, laws for tax administration, labor relations, etc, so this is a challenge for an organization.
Globalization: Global business environment can be defined as the societal and task environment of an organization which is influenced by the global forces. These global forces include the global labor market, economic, technological force, and global competition, legal and political forces etc. Other Challenges: The other challenges may include the following: o Changing demographics of the workforce o Layoffs and downsizing o Information and communication system o Increased use of social networking to distribute information to employees o Design a handsome compensation package for the employees. o Identify the appropriate source of recruiting and selecting employees. o Develop financial management and budgetary skills so that an organization can reduce the extra cost of managing the organization. o Assess and interpret costs or benefits of HRM issues like productivity, salaries, and benefits, recruitment, training, absenteeism, overseas relocation, layoffs etc. o The HR managers must be updated with the new technologies. Hence they must be adopted as and when required and employees should be motivated to adopt these.
4.3. The impact of the legal and regulatory framework on HRM
Most countries have their legislation and regulations that guide the termination of services of employees. Termination of employment results in an employee’s departure from the job. It may be voluntary on part of the employee called as resignation, or it may be a punishment at the instance of employers which is called as dismissal. Dismissal is generally due to a fault of the employee. The layoff is generally for the fault of the organization due to a bad time for the business.

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1. Voeding: zorg voor een gezonde voedingsstijl door bijvoorbeeld dierlijke producten te vervangen door plantaardige producten. Beperk consumptie van ultra bewerkte voeding zoals snoep, bier, frisdrank… en drink water! Niet zo een fan van water? Geef het water dan een smaak, er zijn verschillende manieren om dagelijks meer water te drinken. Breng variatie in je voeding en eet voldoende groene groenten. Let op fyto-oestrogenen zoals appels, sojabonen, tofu, sesamzaad… En geniet! Vervang volle producten door magere producten. Geef de voorkeur aan bruinbrood. Breng verandering in je voeding door evenwichtig te eten.
2. Beweging: zit niet stil en maak tijd voor beweging. Pas je omgeving aan zodanig dat je eerst naar de heilzame keuze grijpt. Pas je gewoontes aan en neem bijvoorbeeld de trap in plaats van de roltrap of lift. Laat de auto staan voor korte afstanden en ga te voet of gebruik de fiets. Probeer dagelijks een halfuur aan lichaamsbeweging te doen. Vervang zowel thuis als op het werk je stoel. Vervang deze door een actieve stoel zoals een zitbal of een kniestoel, die kracht zetten op je rug- en buikspieren. Zorg dat je wekelijks een intensieve inspanning uitvoert die ongeveer 75 minuten duurt.
3. Mindset: neem tijd om je te ontspannen, doe aan yoga of mediteer. Denk aan de positieve dingen, ook al zijn ze klein. Stop met negatief tegen te denken, wees dankbaar. Focus niet op gisteren, niet dit uur, niet morgen maar op het nu. Breng tijd door met positieve mensen. Wees realistisch en stel haalbare doelen op. Slaap goed en verzorg jezelf. Soms helpt het om je even af te zonderen van de buitenwereld. Zet je gsm uit zo kan je niet verstoord worden.

Hou deze zeker in je achterhoofd:
H= Heilzame VOEDING (groenten en fruit)
O= Ontstressen
R= Ritme en Regelmaat
M= Me-Time
O = Opgewekte levenshouding
N= Niet te lang binnen blijven – Ga buiten
E= Essentiële opbouwende stoffen nuttigen
N= (Negentig) minuten/week BEWEGEN
Bernaerts, B. (2018, Mei). De overgang van de vrouw van vruchtbaar naar onvruchtbaar.
Specifiek advies
1. Slaaploosheid: er zijn verschillende redenen die leiden tot slaaploosheid. Zo kunnen de lichamelijke, psychische en hormonale veranderingen een invloed hebben op je slaapkwaliteit. Vaak is slaaploosheid een gevolg van stress. Zorg er daarom voor dat je gaat slapen zonder stress. Haal achterna welke prikkels je slaap kunnen verstoren en vermijd ze. Probeer steeds op dezelfde tijdstippen te gaan slapen, sta op tijd op en ga niet te laat naar bed. Vermijd in de avonduren opwekkende bezigheden zoals tv kijken en zware maaltijden voor het slapen gaan. Het is belangrijk dat je voldoende vitamine en mineralen binnenkrijgt zoals zink, magnesium, calcium, vitamine B en C. deze vind je terug in onder andere vis, granen, groenten, fruit, aardappelen, melk… varieer daarom zeker in je voeding. Consumeer geen cafeïne, theïne (zwarte, witte en groene thee) of theobromine (chocola) houdende producten voor het slapen gaan. Omdat deze stoffen de slaap verstoren. Ook alcohol heeft een negatieve invloed op je slaap. Lukt het nog niet om in slaap te vallen, sta dan op en doe ongeveer een half uurtje wat anders. Keer daarna terug naar je bed.
2. Prikkelbaarheid: Door de hormonale veranderingen wordt de bijnierschors overbelast. Doordat de eierstokken geen hormoon oestrogeen meer aanmaken tijdens de overgang wordt de rol van de bijnieren steeds belangrijker. Doordat de bijnieren extra belast zijn, kan er overdadig adrenaline aangemaakt worden, wat weer symptomen zoals prikkelbaarheid opwekken. Naast de overgang zijn er verschillende oorzaken zoals: een slechte nachtrust en stress. Breng evenwicht in je leven, zorg voor een goede nachtrust en voedingsstijl. Let op je bloedsuikerspiegel, bepaalde voedingsmiddelen kunnen voor een daling van de bloedsuikerspiegel zorgen zoals cafeïne, suikers en voeding met een lage voedingswaarde (bv. fastfood). Geef de voorkeur aan koolhydraten die je bloedsuikerspiegel stabiel houden. Zorg voor ontspanning en vrije tijd. Ga opzoek naar een bezigheid, iets wat je leuk vindt. Probeer zoveel mogelijk stress te vermijden. Geraak je humeurig, haal dan diep adem en focus je een minuut lang alleen op je ademhaling. Ontstress door bijvoorbeeld intensief te gaan sporten op die manier wordt het hormoon endorfine, wat ook wel het geluk hormoon wordt genoemd, aangemaakt. Doe een ding tegelijk want door vermindering van oestrogeen kan je last hebben van concentratiestoornis. Let op je gezondheid en vermijdt roken, want rokende vrouwen komen sneller in de overgang en hebben meer last van klachten. Rokers hebben, in vergelijking met niet-rokers, twee jaar vroeger hun menopauze. Praat over je gevoelens en stop ze niet weg.

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3. Hoofdpijn: de daling van oestrogeen zorgt voor hoofdpijn. Je kan hiervoor een pijnstiller gebruiken, let er wel op dat je geen overdosis aan pijnstillers inneemt. Neem medicijnen op tijd in en zorg voor een rustige omgeving, zodat de medicatie de kans krijgt zijn werk te doen. Probeer te rusten, luister naar je lichaam en doe ontspanningsoefeningen. Hier spelen ook gezonde voeding, voldoende water drinken en bewegen een grote rol. Slaap voldoende, ventileer je slaapkamer goed en draag nachtkleding die ademt. Zorg dat je genoeg water en de benodigde voedingsstoffen binnenkrijgt. Doe aan beweging, het is bovendien goed voor je spierkracht en balans. Probeer gember, munt en basilicum want ze staan bekend als bestrijders van duizelingen en misselijkheid.

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1. Two Americans – Charles Creighton and James Hargis in 1930 made one of the famous “record” travel by car. They traveled distance from New York to Los Angeles in 42 days in reverse gear.
2. The fastest truck among the trucks is the Hawaiian Eagle jet-powered truck.
3. The German Liebherr T 282B is the largest earth-hauling dump truck.
4. PeelP50 is the smallest car in the history.
5. When car radio appeared in cars, some states wanted to ban it, arguing that it could distract drivers’ attention.
6. The first production car was the Ford Model T, it was manufactured from 1908 to 1927.
7. To make the first million cars, Henry Ford’s company took 7 years. And after 132 working days – in 1924 – Ford has already made 10 million cars.
8. the first car, which exceeded the speed of 100 km / h, was an electric car. It was designed in 1899 by race driver Camille Jenatzy from Belgium.
9. DeLorean Motor Company released only one car – DeLorean DMC-12 .
10. Bugatti Veyron – the most expensive production car in the world, its cost exceeds 1.7 million dollars.
11. In Finland, Lada Kalina was renamed Lada 119, due to the fact that Kalina from the local dialect is translated as a crash or rattle.
12. The cheapest car in the world is Indian Tata Nano, its cost is only 2.5 thousand dollars.
13. Lamborghini started his business with the production of tractors.
14. Ferrari has long been a division of Alfa-Romeo
15. The first car accident occurred in 1891, in Ohio.
16. The world’s first car with gasoline engine was designed by Karl Benz in 1885.
17. In the USA, in the state of Rhode Island, drivers are forbidden to carry beer in the car, even if it is sealed.
18. The fastest time to remove the car engine and replace it with a new one was 42 seconds.
19. in Porsche cars, the ignition key is located to the left side of the steering wheel.
20. To date, Volkswagen owns companies such as Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Audi, Ducati, SEAT, Scania, Man SE, Skoda and Porsche.
21. One of the biggest traffic jams in the history by car was in the Netherlands due to ice, the traffic was 975 km long.
22. Mercedes Benz W125 has developed the highest recorded speed on the autobahn in Germany – 432 km / h. It happened in 1938.
23. The Swedish company SAAB was founded in 1937, but initially produced only military aircraft.
24. In Paris, the bus is the fastest mode of transport because for buses there are different lanes.
25. 92% of all new cars sold in Brazil use ethanol as a fuel, which is produced from sugar cane.
26. In Formula 1 racing, women can participate on an equal basis with men. However, in the whole history of the competition, only five women took part.
27. “The smell of a new car” consists of more than 50 volatile organic compounds and not always safe for human health.
28. On average, each car consists of approximately 30,000 parts.
29. The longest car in the world is a limousine 30.5 meters long.
30. Windshield wipers were introduced by a woman.
31. 1950 Cadillac El Dorado was equipped with a mini-bar located in the glove box.
32. The smallest armored vehicle is PAV1 Badger, created by Howe and Howe Technologies.
33. At a top speed of 408 km / h, Bugatti Veyron will consume the entire fuel reserve (with a 26-liter tank) in just over 10 minutes.
34. In 1916, 55 percent of the total number of cars in the world were Ford T cars. This record has never been beaten.
35. In 1924 Ford’s car was worth $ 265.
36. The Renault-Nissan Alliance is the largest automaker in the world today.
37. Toyota and Volkswagen are second and third largest automaker in the world.
38. According to statistics, 66% of drivers at the wheel listen to music, 53% talk with passengers, 27% communicate on a mobile phone, 9% manage to eat and drink, and 2% even shave and paint.
39. When Jai Singh, Maharaja Alwar visited the Rolls-Royce showroom in London, the seller considered that he would not have enough money for such a car. The insulted Maharaja bought ten Rolls-Royce, sent it to India , where he used cars as garbage trucks.
40. The first license plates appeared not on cars, but on horse-drawn carriages.
41. The BMW M5 engine is so quiet that the sound of the engine running is reproduced through the speakers so that the driver knows that the motor is running.
42. Bill Gates brought a Porsche 959 supercar even before this car became legal in the US.
43. The Alfa Romeo logo shows a snake that devours a person.
44. According to 2010 reports, there are approximately 1 billion motor vehicles on the road.
45. The first car, equipped with three-point seat belts, was released in 1959 by Volvo.
46. The world’s first “Rolls-Royce” was worth $ 600,000 (1906).
47. The most popular discovery in the automotive industry is considered to be the discovery of an internal combustion engine, when Carl Benz first installing it on the car.
48. Porsche in the 60s produced not only cars, but also tractors.
49. Every day around the world produces about 165,000 cars of different brands.
50. On January 1, 1910, the first racing car under the Alfa Romeo brand was produced.
51. According to data from 2008, there are only nine traffic lights in Cairo, where more than 18 million people live.
52. South African law allows for any degree of self-defense when it comes to the threat to life or property of a person. To protect vehicles from theft, traps, electric shock and even flamethrowers are popular.
53. Volkswagen in German means “people’s car”.
54. The first traffic light appeared in 1868 in London.
55. The first gearbox was invented by Louis Reno in 1900.
56. A person spends about 5 months of his life in waiting on red light.
57. Approximately one out of 4 cars in the world comes from China.
58. Millions of animals are killed every week by vehicles.
59. The logo of Mercedes-Benz represents its domination on land, sea and air.
60. More than 3,000 people die every day in car accidents.

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1.0DESIGN OF A BUS STOP KIOSK
1.1 Introduction to design of Bus-stop Kiosk
We present a simple design of a bus – stop kiosk using the simplest design methods. A steel plate will be used for the roof panel because still have the capacity to withstand load from rain and wind, and also because it is easy to bend and drill for further connections. The plate will consist of four beam at the edges to act as a support to the load on top of the plate and also to act as an attachment for the roof mainframe. Paints will be applied to the entire structure to protect the component from weather effects and corrosion, we believe it will also help in the modification of the entire structures.

Details of the Design
The structure is rectangular and will be designed with a gentle slope. It has a vertical beam (4 pieces) acting as a structural support to the horizontal column holding the beam together. The bus stop kiosk has a dimension of 4.5 x 1.2 x 2.5m with an inner space for user’s. It consists of seat for inner fixtures for the purpose of those who would want to rest till the next bus is available
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Fig.1.1.1 details of the bus stop kiosk design section
1.2Structural Analysis
1.2.1Roof Beam Structure
The structural analysis was focused on beam structure of length 1.2m for the trusses (Modular) to resist any lateral load acting on it. The structural steel beam will beam will be designed to S355 eurocode with anti-corrosive properties
b
h
Shape Material E (MPa) V P(kg/m3)
Hollow section Structural steel 193000 0.27 7850
B = 0.05, h=0.07, d =0.005m, Mass = 8.13kg/m, Length = 1.2m
Area of the beam = AA=A1 – A2= (0.07 x 0.05) – (0.06 x 0.04) = 0.0011m2
Y axis centroid = 0.07/2 = 0.035m
X axis Centroid = 0.05/2 = 0.025m
b
cx
cy h
Area moment of inertia about Y- axis (Iy) = (bh3 – (b-2d) (h-2d) 3)
12
= (0.05 x 0.073) – (0.04 x 0.063)/ 12 = 7.0917 x 10-7 m4
Area moment of inertia (Z-axis) (IZ) = (b3h–(b-2d) 3 (h-2d)/12
= (0.053 x 0.07) – (0.043 x 0.06)/ 12 = 4.0917 x 10-7 m4Sectional modulus, Z = Iy /y = 7.0917 x 10-7 / 0.035 = 2.0262 x 10-5 m3Radius of gyration, R = (Iy/AA) 1/2= (7.0917 x 10-7 / 0.0011)1/2= 2.5391 x10-2m
1.2.2Load Analysis
Designing based on the Eurocode, consideration will be given to snow, since Bus-stop Kiosk belongs to category C, and the following assumption will be made based on the code
For every m2 of snow will weigh about 95.5kg
Dimension of Roof 4.5 x 1.2m, with each section peg at 1.2m x 2.5m, these will be the basis for our calculations
Roof area = 1.2 x 2.5 = 3.0 m2If 1m2= 96kg then, 3.0m= 3.0 x 96 = 288kg of snow mass will act on the roof area
Therefore, the pressure load acting on the roof (KN/m2) 288 x 9.81/3.0 = 941.76Nm-2
1.2.2.1Load Acting on Beam 1.2m
941.76Nm-2 x 1.2m = 1130.112 Nm-1
Self weight of the beam = 8.13 x 9.81 = 79.56N
Total Load = 1130.112 + 79.56 = 1209.672N
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1.2.3Shear force
When x =0 to x =1.2
Taking Reaction from the left support RBSum of forces acting along the right support: +? ? f (y) = 0RA+ RB – 1209.64 = 0RA + RB= 1209.64N ———————————————————–(1)Sum of moment about the left support equals zero for static equilibrium:?M = 0RB (1.2-0) + (-1209.64) = 0——————————————————— (1) RB = 1007.44N (2)From equation (1)
RA + RB= 1209.64N, RA = 1209.64 – RBRA = 1209.64 – 1007.44 = 202.2N
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1.2.4Bending Moment
1.2.4.1Bending moment
Let x = 0 to x = 1.2 for bending momentAssuming a cut for 0 ? x ? 1.2:
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?Mx = 0+202.2(x-0) – M1(x) = 0M1(x) = +202.2x for equation 0 ? x ? 1Taking a cut for 1? x ? 1.2
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For x = 0 to x = 2:?Mx = 0+202.2(x-0) + (-1209.64) (x-1) – M2(x) = 0M2(x) = +1209.64-202.2x equation for 1 ? x ? 2
1.2.4.2Maximum Bending Moment
Assuming a maximum Bending at the middle of the steel beam where x =1Using previously generated equation for the steel beam; Mmax(x) = +1209.64-202.2xTherefore, Mmax(1) = +1209.64-202.2(1) = 1007.44KNm
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Maximum bending Moment for beam 1.2m
1.2.5Deflection
Maximum deflection ?C = FL3 48EI
?C = (1209.64x 1.23) / (48 x 193000 x 7.0917 x 10-7) = 2.3882 x 10-3m
If allowable Deflection = L/240, then 1200/240 = 5mm, hence the materials selected for the design is can withstand deflection
1.3Column Design
If the ratio of the radius of gyration to the effective length of column is greater than 50, then we regard it has a long column but if less than 50, it is then called a short column based on Eurocode. For the purpose of this calculation, the column (rectangular hollow) is having a length of height of 4.5m
50
70
Assuming a lateral section of 50mm
Ratio = 4.5/0.05 = 90 ; 15.

Therefore this column is a slender column (long column). Since this column is slender (long) we can apply Euler’s Formula to check for buckling
Euler’s Formula for Critical force Pcr = ?2EI / Le2Pcr = Critical loadE = Modulus of elasticity of the materialI = Moment of inertia of the materialLe= Effective length of the column
1.3.1Column Joint constant
End Fixing K Value (Practical)
Pinned (End) 1
Fixed Ends 0.65
Fixed 0.8
Free 2.1
The column support from our drawing is pinned which means the value of K is 1
Therefore, the effective length Le= L x K = 4.5 x 1 = 4.5m
The moment of inertia with least axis will most likely have bucklingmoment of inertia about this axis aremoment of inertia Y-axis (Iy) = 7.0917 x 10-7 m4moment of inertia Z-axis (IZ) = 4.0917 x 10-7 m4buckling will occur about the Z- axis.Radius of gyration about the Z-axis, R = (IZ/AA) 1/2= (4.0917 x 10-7 / 0.0011)1/2= 1.9287 x10-2m
Slenderness ratio (S) = Le / RTherefore, S = Le / R = 4.5 / 1.9287 x10-2 = 233.328
1.3.2Critical forceCritical force Pcr = ?2EI / Le2For column 4.5m, Pcr= (?2 x 193000x 4.0917 x 10-7x 1012) / 4.52= 384989.094N = 384.9 KN (Buckling force for 4.5m column)
1.3.3Critical stressCritical Stress (?critical) = ?2E / (Le/ R) 2?critical = ?2 x 193000/ (4.5 / 1.9287 x10-2)2= 33.98MPaResult show that the critical stress is less than the material yield stress.

1.3.4Yield forceYield Stress ?yield = Yield force (Pyield) / Area (A)Pyield = ?yield x A. The yield stress for S355 Pyield = 355 x 0.0011 x 106 = 390500N = 391KN (355 yield force)Since the material yield force (391KN) is greater than the buckling force(384.9KN), the material is good for bus stop koisk structure.

1.5Materials properties for the S355 beam
Properties Value
Mass 8.12 kg/m
Young Modulus 193pa
Length 4.5 x 1.2m
Moment of Inertia (2nd) 7.10 x 10-7m
Area 0.0011 m2
Max. Bending Moment 1007.44KNm
Yield force 391KN
Buckling Force 384.9 KN

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