• “Diabetes disease is a condition that prevents the body completely by using energy from food that changes when the pancreas does not produce insulin, but is resisted by body.”
• “A disease in which the body cannot control the quantity of sugar in the body”.( INFO)
• “A disease in which the body produces the hormone insulin is damaged, resulting in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and it evaluates levels of glucose in the blood and urine.”(WHO)
According to WHO definition of Diabetes:
Diabetes is a chronic, metabolic disease which elevated levels of blood sugar, which leads over time to serious damage to the blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, heart and nerves. The most common type of diabetes is type 2 diabetes that is commonly in adults, it occur when the body does not make enough insulin or when the body resistant to insulin. . In the past three decades the prevalent of type 2 diabetes has dramatically risen in countries of all income levels. Type 1 diabetes is also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes that is a condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin by itself. For people who have diabetes, access to affordable treatment, including insulin, is critical to their survival.
1.2 Classification of Diabetes:
There are three types of diabetes:
1.2.1 Type 1 Diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It I also called juvenile-onset diabetes, because type 1 diabetes is often begins in childhood.
It is an autoimmune condition. It’s caused by the body attacking its own pancreas with antibodies. The people who have type 1 diabetes, the damaged pancreas doesn’t make insulin in the body.
A large number of medical risks are associated with type 1 diabetes. Many of them stem from damage to the tiny blood vessels in your eyes , nerves, and kidneys . Even more serious is the increased risk of heart disease and stroke.
There is no specific diabetes causes, but the following triggers may be involved:
• Viral or bacterial infection
• Chemical toxins within food
• Unidentified component causing autoimmune reaction
1.2.2 Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for 95% of diabetes cases in adults and 26 million adults have been diagnosed with the disease.
It is also called adult-onset diabetes, but with the epidemic of obese and overweight kids, mostly teenagers are now developing type 2 diabetes. This type of diabetes is called non-insulin-dependent diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is often a light form of diabetes than type 1 diabetes. In spite of that type 2 diabetes can still cause major health complications, particularly in the smallest blood vessels in the body that nourish the kidneys, nerves, and eyes. This type of diabetes also increases your risk of heart disease and stroke.
There is no cure of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes controlled with weight management, nutrition.
There are following causes of diabetes:
• Living a sedentary lifestyle
• Increasing age
• Bad diet
1.2.3 Gestational Diabetes:
Gestational diabetes is hyperglycemia with blood sugar values above normal but those diagnostic of diabetes, occurring during pregnancy.
Women who have gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of complications during pregnancy and at delivery time. In the future Women and their children are also at increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
This type of diabetes is diagnosed through prenatal screening, rather than through reported symptoms.
There are many risk factors that increase the chances of developing this condition:
• Family history of gestational diabetes
• Overweight or obese
• Suffer from polycystic ovary syndrome
Gestational diabetes may also be related to ethnicity – some ethnic groups have a higher risk of gestational diabetes.
1.3 Worldwide Distribution of Diabetes
Diabetes is a global problem in which there are more than 300 million people living with diabetes in the worldwide. Nearly 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. There are 422 million people worldwide have diabetes.
1.4 Diabetes in Pakistan
About 90,000 approximately people annually kills due to diabetes in the Pakistan. Majority of women has diabetes. Studies reveal that the rank of Pakistan is 7th number in the top 10 countries in the world. In Pakistan the highest number of people living with diabetes. The diabetes prevalence rate in Pakistan is 12%, which is expected to rise up to 30% by 2025 and then Pakistan will rank 5th in the world.
With in Pakistan, Sindh has the highest number of diabetics that is 30.2 %, in Punjab 28.8% and in Baluchistan 28.1% diabetics.sindh follows dibetes.KP has the lowest incidence of the lifestyle disease, in KP 12.9% diabetics but KP has the highest number of pre-diabetics, which is above 15%” said Prof Abdul Basit.”